Coal has been formed from plant residues hundreds of millions of years ago. In energy statistics coal refers to the energy sources of charcoal (1211,1212), lignite (1221), other coal (1222,1228,1229), coke, and blast furnace and coke oven gases obtained as a by-product from the production of iron.
This refers to combined heat and power production where backpressure or bled steam is utilised as district or process heat, and to electricity generation in engine or gas turbine-operated production machinery where the heat of exhaust gases or the cooling water is used as an energy source. Higher efficiency ratios are achieved with combined production than with separate production, in other words, better use is made of the fuels needed in the production.
Electric energy produced by cooling down steam with water without using the heat energy of the steam.
Simultaneously usable net electricity capacity that can be produced in Finland in extreme cold and bad water situations during one hour.
Electricity intensity is defined as the ratio of total consumption of electricity to gross domestic product.
Electricity supply refers to the total combined volume of produced electricity and net imports of electricity. Net imports refer to imports of electricity less exports of electricity.
Energy balance sheet describes the conversion of primary energy to final consumption. The balance sheet contains separate entries for primary energy supply, stock changes, energy production and transmission, final energy consumption and non-energy use.
Energy intensity is defined as the ratio of total energy consumption to gross domestic product.
Final energy consumption measures the consumption of electricity and heat, fuels for space heating, transport fuels and fuels for industrial processes. It differs from total consumption in that energy transmission and distribution losses have been removed from it. Thus, it represents the final amount of energy left at the disposal of households and other consumers.
Fossil fuels refer to fuels that have been formed of biomass and stored underground millions of years ago. Fossil fuels include coal, lignite, natural gas and fuel oils refined from crude oil. In international classifications peat is often classified as fossil fuel, although it is a clearly younger fuel than them.
Mixed fuels refer to fuels that contain both fossil and renewable (biodegradable) coal.
Net imports of electricity refers to the difference between imports and exports of electricity.
Recovered fuels mean fuels with known properties made from dry and combustible wastes generated by industry, enterprises and municipalities and sorted at source.
A common feature of renewable energy sources is that their sustainable use does not deplete their stocks in the long term. The renewable energy sources used in Finland are hydro and wind power, solar energy, aerothermal energy and ground heat captured by heat pumps, biogas, biodegradable parts of recovered and waste fuels, wood-based fuels, and other vegetable and animal-based fuels.
Separate production of electricity refers to the generation of electricity in thermal and nuclear power plants, separate production with gas turbines and combustions engines, and hydro and wind power. Separate production also refers to the volume of electricity corresponding to the condensing load produced during off-peak heat load periods at combined heat and power plants, and supplementary production with auxiliary condensers.
Small combustion of wood refers to the use of firewood in households and in the heating of farms and service buildings. Apart from firewood material it also includes wood waste from demolition and construction activity.
Terajoule (TJ) is a measurement unit of energy that is often used to express the energy content of fuels. 1 TJ = 0.278 GWh
Total energy consumption describes total commensurate consumption of domestic energy sources and imported energy in Finland. It includes fuels used in the production and processing of energy, and energy used in final consumption, including transport fuels and fuels used for heating buildings.