Households do great quantities of household work and it is also significant for the national economy

According to the internationally agreed practice, unpaid household work or services produced by households for themselves are not as a rule included in gross domestic product. However, it is possible to calculate a value for this work done by households. To calculate the value, there are two quite different methods: work can be priced either at market prices or as the sum of costs (work and products used in production). Pricing of household production at market prices would be a theoretically more correct method, but not enough information is found for it. The international guidelines published in 2017 recommend calculating the value of household production through costs, in other words, using the so-called input method. In Finland, the value of household production has been calculated using the input method since 2001 for the years when either of the main sources, the Time Use Survey or the Household Budget Survey were available. Previous calculations were made in collaboration between Statistics Finland and the National Consumer Research Centre, but Statistics Finland has assumed full responsibility and now publishes the calculations for 2016.

The 2016 calculations of the statistics on the value of household production make use of the data of the latest Household Budget Survey (2016), the Time Use Survey of 2009 and other annual statistics. The data of the 2009 Time Use Survey are updated with regard to the numbers of household types in 2016. The figures concerning the value of household production were calculated according to the new international guidelines, whereby the time on household work by those aged 15 or over is taken into consideration in the calculations (previously in Finland the time on household work by those aged 10 or over was included in the calculations) and voluntary work is not included in household production, but it is shown as a separate part.

When we talk about household production, it means household production both included in gross domestic product and excluded from gross domestic product. In the calculations, these two items are kept separate, whereby household production excluded from GDP can be taken as a proportion to GDP or it can be summed with GDP to calculate so-called extended GDP, and there is thus no overlapping in the calculations.

Calculated with the input method, the gross value added of household production covers the value of work done by households for themselves and consumption of fixed capital used in production, and it is the concept corresponding to gross domestic product in these calculations.

Gross value added of household production EUR 95.2 billion

In 2016, gross domestic product was EUR 216.1 billion in Finland, and the gross value added of total household production EUR 95.2 billion. The share of household production in GDP was EUR 16.4 billion and the gross value added of household production excluded from GDP (so-called non-SNA) EUR 78.8 billion. The share of household production excluded from national accounts corresponded to 36.5 per cent of GDP. The gross value added of household production excluded from GDP as a ratio to GDP has been at a very similar level in 2009 and 2012, too.

Figure 1. Household production excluded from GDP as a ratio to GDP

Figure 1. Household production excluded from GDP as a ratio to GDP

The so-called extended GDP, or the sum of GDP and the gross value added of household production excluded from GDP, was EUR 295.0 billion in 2016. The gross value added of household production – that is, we can now take into account both household production already included in GDP and excluded from GDP – is slightly under one third of this extended GDP, that is, 32.3 per cent.

Figure 2. Extended GDP

Figure 2. Extended GDP

Household production a wider concept

When we talk about household production, not only of the gross value added of household production, the concept includes both working time and the goods and services used in production. In national accounts, only acquisition of dwellings is calculated as households’ investments and other expenses are final consumption. When compiling the statistics on the value of household production, households’ consumption expenditure is grouped anew so that some of the products are calculated as intermediate products, some as investments and some directly as final consumption. Of these, final consumption is not included in household production.

In the model developed in Finland the time used on voluntary work is included in household production: the results of the Time Use Survey show that 75 per cent of the time used on voluntary work in 2009 was neighbourly help and 25 per cent was used on associations. In the international model voluntary work is not included in household production, but it is recommended that it is calculated and shown separately in the results.

Table 1: Value of household production in Finland in 2016

Value of household production in 2016 / Households total / EUR million Household production (SNA + non-SNA) Voluntary work Household production incl. voluntary work
Value added, net 84 918 7 286 92 204
Consumption of capital 10 297 0 10 297
Value added, gross 95 214 7 286 102 500
Intermediate consumption 33 170 0 33 170
Value of output 128 384 7 286 135 670

The statistics on the value of household production supplement the core system of national accounts in describing the significance of household production not included in national accounts. The statistics describe the monetary value of the goods and services produced by households for their own use.

The statistics on the value of household production supplement the core system of national accounts in describing the significance of household production not included in national accounts. The statistics describe the monetary value of the goods and services produced by households for their own use.


Source: Value of household production, Statistics Finland

Inquiries: Katri Soinne 029 551 2778, kansantalous@stat.fi

Director in charge: Ville Vertanen


Updated 7.11.2018

Referencing instructions:

Statistics: Value of household production [e-publication].
ISSN=2490-0192. 2016, Households do great quantities of household work and it is also significant for the national economy . Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 15.11.2018].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/kotsa/2016/kotsa_2016_2018-11-07_kat_001_en.html