Published: 28 February 2020

Number of coercive measures performed unchanged from the previous year

According to Statistics Finland's data, the police, customs and border guard used coercive measures 194,900 times in 2019, which is 300 coercive measures (0.1 per cent) fewer than in the year before. Apprehensions based on the Police Act decreased most in numbers. The share of confiscations was 5.9 per cent higher and searches of premises 7.4 per cent higher than in the previous year.

Coercive measures of the police, customs and border guard in 2010 to 2019

Coercive measures of the police, customs and border guard in 2010 to 2019

In 2019, the police used coercive measures 188,100 times. This is 96.5 per cent of all coercive measures used. Customs used coercive measures 4,800 times and the border guard 2,000 times. The shares of customs and the border guard were low in all the most significant coercive measure groups. Customs and the border guard performed close on 10 per cent of confiscations.

Coercive measures against freedom

In 2019, a total of 22,600 apprehensions were made, which is 400 cases (1.8 per cent) more than in the year before. The number of arrests was 8,800, up by 300 cases (3.4 per cent) from one year earlier. The number of apprehensions was 2,060, which is 50 cases (2.1 per cent) fewer than in 2018. Altogether, 570 travel bans were enforced, which is 2.9 per cent more than in 2018.

At the beginning of 2016, a coercive measure concerning detention of foreigners entered into force. A total of 1,300 detentions of foreigners were recorded in 2019, which is 16.5 per cent lower than in the year before. The most common reason for the detention of a foreigner was that a foreigner would hinder the preparation and enforcement of decision-making concerning him or her by hiding or running or in some other way. This was the basis for around 2,400 cases. Another common reason for the detention was that a foreigner was suspected of a crime and the detention was necessary to ensure the preparation or enforcement of the decision to deport from the country. This reason was used around 1,800 times. One coercive measure can contain several grounds, so the number of grounds is higher than the number of actual coercive measures. Altogether 8,100 grounds were used in 1,300 detentions of foreigners last year. The detention of a foreigner is not necessarily criminally based, but a foreigner can be detained without suspicion of a crime.

The number of intoxicated persons taken into custody has fallen in recent years. A total of 49,000 intoxicated persons were taken into custody in 2019. This is 2,700 cases (5.3 per cent) fewer than in 2018. Taking intoxicated persons into custody is a coercive measure based on the Police Act, where the object of the coercive measure is usually not suspected of an offence but the coercive measure is used to ensure the safety of the person or his or her environment.

Coercive measures against freedom by sex in 2019

Coercive measures against freedom by sex in 2019

A majority of coercive measures against freedom were directed at Finnish citizens. Apprehensions based on the Police Act are often taking intoxicated persons into custody, but this group also includes other temporary apprehensions to ensure that domestic or public premises are not invaded. Information on nationality is based on Statistics Finland’s register data. If there are no register data, police records are used.

Coercive measures against freedom by nationality 2018 and 2019

  Total Apprehension based on the Police Act Apprehension Arrest Remand Detention of a foreigner
2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019
Total 86,114 83,771 51,789 49,063 22,200 22,601 8,468 8,752 2,103 2,058 1,554 1,297
Finland 72,370 70,818 46,505 44,319 17,556 18,041 6,799 6,950 1,510 1,508 0 0
Estonia 3,380 3,053 1,490 1,265 1,207 1,199 332 317 105 81 246 191
Iraq 1,449 872 441 323 556 319 168 134 42 43 242 53
Romania 1,018 1,140 218 243 353 367 209 286 76 93 162 151
Russia 1,007 902 423 384 326 272 149 158 42 33 67 55
Somalia 778 703 534 473 152 142 42 49 11 17 39 22
Sweden 541 567 312 281 152 195 52 62 21 20 4 9
Gambia 429 368 11 13 207 182 56 55 14 11 141 107
Afghanistan 407 361 160 158 123 109 43 34 17 10 64 50
Latvia 325 351 169 147 109 135 28 43 6 8 13 18
Belarus 197 314 22 22 79 131 38 73 9 16 49 72
Lithuania 252 299 79 79 73 108 55 60 24 21 21 31
Ukraine 181 267 44 62 71 106 41 48 6 14 19 37
Without citizenship 161 240 54 71 54 98 22 26 12 4 19 41
Bulgaria 236 131 68 42 96 47 29 26 14 7 29 9
Georgia 205 150 17 12 83 74 28 14 19 8 58 42
Unknown 200 168 129 113 44 38 9 5 3 2 15 10
Poland 157 184 85 87 46 57 15 19 5 7 6 14
Iran 156 171 55 30 51 83 19 23 8 4 23 31
Morocco 132 133 46 54 43 35 14 10 8 5 21 29
Nigeria 125 122 14 18 53 50 11 12 3 3 44 39
Syria 124 122 39 29 47 59 23 18 7 3 8 13
Other 2,284 2,335 874 838 719 754 286 330 141 140 264 273

Other coercive measures

At the beginning of 2014, new coercive measures came into force: search of data contained in a device and search of premises. A search of data contained in a device refers to a search directed to the data content contained in a computer, a terminal end device or in another corresponding technical device or information system. In 2019, altogether 6,700 searches of data contained in a device were performed, which is 5.6 per cent more than in the previous year. A search of premises refers to a search conducted elsewhere than in a public place but not a domicile. Searches of premises numbered 7,800, most of which were carried out to find an object or property to be confiscated or to clarify an offence. Compared with the previous year, 7.4 per cent more searches of premises were performed.

The number of bodily searches and physical examinations and possible confiscations related to them increased by 1.1 per cent from the previous year. Their number was 30,300 in 2019. Physical examinations were done to determine the DNA profile of a suspect and to detect consumption of alcohol or other narcotics. Altogether, 29,300 confiscations were recorded, which is 5.9 per cent more than in the year before. House searches and confiscations made in their connection numbered 10,700, which was 1.4 per cent lower than in 2018. The number of house searches and confiscations made in their connection has decreased considerably compared to 2013 as part of them are now recorded as searches of premises or searches of data contained in a device.

The number of enforced restraining orders continued to fall. Altogether, 1,100 restraining orders were enforced in 2019, which is 13 per cent fewer than one year earlier and 26 per cent fewer than in 2017.

A total of 26,300 coercive measures were directed to women, being 13.5 per cent of all coercive measures. Women's shares were small in all types of coercive measures. Of the coercive measures directed to women, 28 per cent were taking intoxicated persons into custody and 15 per cent were physical examinations and confiscations. Close on eight per cent of coercive measures were not directed to a person but, for example, to legal persons or premises.

Examinations to detect narcotics use have increased

In all, 6,600 examinations of state of intoxication with a precision breathalyser were recorded in 2019, which was 1,100 cases (14.1 per cent) fewer than in 2018. The number of examinations of state of intoxication with a blood test was 14,000 in 2019, which was 500 cases (3.7 per cent) more than in 2018. Examinations of state of intoxication in order to detect narcotics use increased by 5.5 per cent and examinations to determine the blood alcohol level increased by 0.5 per cent from 2015.

Investigations of drunken driving in 2013 to 2019

  2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Breath alcohol 9,597 8,528 8,206 7,790 7,369 7,638 6,562
Request to examine state of intoxication 11,000 11,345 11,538 11,662 12,456 13,554 14,051
Of which              
...Blood alcohol 7,669 7,228 6,705 6,578 6,493 6,678 6,710
...Narcotics 4,504 5,254 6,123 6,555 7,665 8,742 9,221
...Consumption after driving 1,899 1,734 1,644 1,461 1,365 1,386 1,499
...Theoretical statement on state of intoxication 344 261 237 199 192 184 190
...Alcohol back calculation 1,051 882 778 692 604 596 591

The database tables describing coercive measures were reviewed in connection with the release on 28 February 2019. They contain further information on the duration of apprehensions, arrests and detentions as well as more detailed information on the grounds for coercive measures.


Source: Statistics on offences and coercive measures 2019. Statistics Finland

Inquiries: Kimmo Haapakangas 029 551 3252, Pekka Hänninen 029 551 2606, rikos@stat.fi

Director in charge: Jari Tarkoma

Publication in pdf-format (239.3 kB)

Tables

Tables in databases

Appendix tables


Updated 28.2.2020

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Statistics on offences and coercive measures [e-publication].
ISSN=2342-9178. 14 2019. Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 13.7.2020].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/rpk/2019/14/rpk_2019_14_2020-02-28_tie_001_en.html