Environment and Natural Resources

Geographical data

Area, km2, 1.1.2018
Area, total 390 908
Land area 303 919
Fresh water 34 533
Sea water 52 456
Boundaries, km
Sweden 614
Norway 736
Russia 1 340
Limit of territorial waters 1 250
Total 3 940
Greatest length, km
Hanko–Utsjoki 1 157
Greatest width, km
Närpiö–Ilomantsi 542
Highest point, m
Halti  1 324
Longest river, km
Kemijoki  500
Largest lakes, km2
Saimaa 1 393
Päijänne 1 082
Inarijärvi 1 082
Oulujärvi 912
Pielinen 895
Largest islands, km2
a) Sea
Mainland Åland 689
Kemiönsaari 545
b) Inland waters
Soisalo 1 540

Lakes with an area of 500 m2 or more total about 168 000, of which around 57 000 with an area of over one hectare.
Islands with an area of 100 m2 or more total about 187 000.

Sources: National Land Survey of Finland

Finnish Environment Institute

Table in Excel format (xlsx)

Updated: 2.2.2018

Protected and wilderness areas on 1 January 2018

  Number Area, ha Water, %
Protected areas 11 365 2 349 821 17,8
National parks 40 1 001 810 18,0
Strict nature reserves 19 154 157 1,9
Mire reserves 167 470 584 2,6
Herb-rich forest reserves 46 1 058 1,0
Old-growth forest reserves 88 9 686 2,9
Other state-owned protected areas 283 347 468 10,2
Protected areas on private land 10 662 329 325 53,3
Protected areas on Åland 60 35 733 92,2
Wilderness reserves 12 1 489 121 7,5

In addition, the Act on the Protection of Rapids protects a total of 53 individual rapids, river portions or catchment areas against power station construction.
Corresponding acts have been passed on the protection of the Ounasjoki and Kyrönjoki rivers.

Sources: Ministry of the Environment

Metsähallitus

ÅSUB

Table in Excel format (xlsx)

Updated: 26.3.2018

Weather conditions

  Mean daily temperature (centigrade) Number of days with precipitation 1)
  Helsinki Sodankylä
(Lapland)
Helsinki Sodankylä
(Lapland)
   1981–2010 2017  1981–2010 2017  1981–2010 2017  1981–2010 2017
January -3,9 -1,9 -13,5 -10,2 12 6 9 9
February -4,7 -2,0 -12,7 -10,1 8 6 8 6
March -1,3 1,2 -7,5 -5,6 8 9 8 9
April 3,9 2,8 -1,3 -2,5 7 11 6 5
May 10,2 9,5 5,3 2,6 7 5 9 4
June 14,6 13,7 11,6 10,3 8 11 10 13
July 17,8 16,0 14,5 15,1 8 9 11 10
August 16,3 16,2 11,7 11,9 10 11 10 11
September 11,5 12,1 6,2 7,2 10 9 9 7
October 6,6 5,8 0,1 0,4 10 16 9 9
November 1,6 4,1 -7,1 -5,5 12 20 10 13
December -2,0 1,8 -11,7 -10,1 11 20 8 12

oF = 9/5oC + 32

1) Precipitation ≥ 1,0 mm

Source: Finnish Meteorological Institute

Table in Excel format (xlsx)

Updated: 12.1.2018

Air emissions

  Unit 1980 1990 2000 2010 2014 2015 2016
Greenhouse gas emissions,
CO2 eq.
mil. tons . . 71,3 70,1 75,5 58,9 55,4 58,8
Carbon dioxide 1) mil. tons 54,1 52,6 52,8 59,2 43,6 40,0 43,2
Sulphur (as SO2) 1 000 t 583 250   81 67 43 42 40
Nitrogen oxides 1 000 t 284 299   229 178 141 130 129

1) Emissions from combustion of fossil fuels and peat

Source: Statistics Finland, Greenhouse gases

Table in Excel format (xlsx)

Updated: 12.4.2018

Greenhouse gas emissions and removals

  Emissions Removals 1)
  1 000 000 t CO2 equivalent
1990 71,3 -14,0
1991 69,1 -26,5
1992 67,6 -20,5
1993 69,9 -21,4
1994 75,4 -14,6
1995 71,9 -13,7
1996 77,8 -22,4
1997 76,4 -19,2
1998 72,7 -17,6
1999 72,1 -20,4
2000 70,1 -22,4
2001 75,5 -23,9
2002 78,0 -24,5
2003 85,5 -25,0
2004 81,8 -26,3
2005 69,8 -27,7
2006 81,1 -34,0
2007 79,4 -26,5
2008 71,3 -25,4
2009 67,7 -38,1
2010 75,5 -27,5
2011 67,8 -29,0
2012 62,3 -32,7
2013 63,1 -27,3
2014 58,9 -30,9
2015 55,4 -28,8
2016 58,8 -27,1

1) LULUCF (land use, land use change and forestry)

Source: Statistics Finland, Greenhouse gases

Table in Excel format (xlsx)

 

Updated: 12.4.2018

 

Main topic: Environment and Natural Resources

Last updated 12 Apr 2018