Regional statistics on entrepreneurial activity: documentation of statistics
Basic data of the statistics
Enterprises engaged in business activities in Finland constitute the population of the regional statistics of entrepreneurial activity. The key classification variables of the statistics, such as industry, sector, legal form, type of ownership, and the size category of wage and salary earners, are obtained from the Register of Enterprises and Establishments of Statistics Finland. Enterprises are selected for the statistics if they are market-based and have had personnel, turnover, investments and balance sheet during the statistical reference year.
An establishment of an enterprise or other unit carrying out economic activities is used as the statistical unit.
An establishment may as such constitute an enterprise (single-establishment enterprise) or be a clearly definable part of an enterprise (multi-establishment/multi-industry enterprise). An actual establishment is a unit owned by a single enterprise or a quasi-corporate unit that is located in one place and mainly produces goods or services of one type. An actual establishment usually employs personnel and generates turnover.
The statistics also comprise ancillary establishments. These are establishments that support the production taking place in the actual establishments. An ancillary establishment can be a warehouse or a unit producing administrative or transport services. An ancillary establishment may employ wage and salary earners but it does not generate any turnover. Operating expenses of an ancillary establishment are included in the operating expenses of the actual establishments of an enterprise (internal delivery).
Unit of measure
The regional statistics on entrepreneurial activity cover nearly all industries. All market-based enterprises that have had turnover, personnel, other operating income, investments, or balance sheet during the statistical reference year are included in the statistics.
Marked-based enterprises engaged in agriculture, forestry and fishery (industry A) that have had income from agriculture, other turnover, personnel, other operating income, investments, or balance sheet during the statistical reference year are included in the statistics. Only personal data on agriculture are comprehensively included in the statistics.
For industry 02, the units that have had income from forestry, other turnover, personnel, other operating income, investments, or balance sheet during the statistical reference year are included in the statistics
The following industries are not included in the statistics on establishments:
* Manufacture of tobacco products (TOL 12)
* Public administration and defence; compulsory social security (TOL O)
* Activities of households as employers (TOL T)
* Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies (TOL U)
For the following industries, only the number of establishments and personnel is given:
* Crop and animal production and hunting and related service activities (TOL 01)
* Financial and insurance activities (TOL K)
The group of statistical units in the structural business and financial statement statistics was expanded year 2023. Previously, only enterprises having operated for at least six months in the statistical reference year and whose turnover, number of personnel, investments or balance sheet exceeded the statistical limit were included in the statistics. Limitations concerning the operating time and size of enterprises have been removed from the definition of statistical units. Annual data contained in the statistics can be found on the website of the statistics and in Statistics Finland’s StatFin database with renewed statistical units for the period from 2018 onwards. Database tables created with the old statistical units can be found in the StatFin database archive for years 2013 to 2021.
Frequency of dissemination
Accuracy, reliability and timeliness
Final data are published 12 months after the end of the statistical year.
Comparability - geographical
Comparability - over time
The group of statistical units in the structural business and financial statement statistics was expanded year 2023. Annual data contained in the statistics can be found on the website of the statistics and in Statistics Finland’s StatFin database with renewed statistical units for the period from 2018 onwards. The change causes a break in the time series compared to old data. The effect of the new statistical units on variables other than the number of enterprises is mainly quite marginal, but can affect to some of the variables.
Temporal comparability of the data in archive is weakened by changes concerning industries, and changes in the Accounting Act and Accounting Decree. There were significant changes in forming the statistics from 2013 onwards, which causes a break in the time series for some of the variables and indutries.
Coherence - cross domain
Coherence with other statistics is limited by conceptual and methodological issues. The turnover given in the business indicators has been calculated on the basis of the self-assessed taxes data supplied by the Finnish Tax Administration.
The definition of turnover in the self-assessed taxes returns does not fully correspond with the turnover stated in the profit and loss account.
The calendar year, six months, quarter or month is used as the measurement period in the monthly indicators of enterprises. The measurement period for structural business and financial statement statistics is the 12-month accounting period. The accounting period is not always the same as the calendar year.
Coherence - internal
Source data and data collections
* Business Register inquiry for multi-establishment enterprises
* Business Register inquiry for single-establishment enterprises
* Business Register inquiry on establishment structure and personnel
The data on single-establishment enterprises are based on
* Business tax data
* Financial statements inquiry for enterprises
The inquiries about the business operations of multi-establishment enterprises are as follows:
* Inquiry for industrial establishments
* Inquiry on establishment structure and personnel (appendix to the financial statements inquiry)
In the annual inquiry for industrial establishments, industrial establishments of enterprises are asked to provide information on their income, expenditure, investments and inventories. As a rule, the inquiry for industrial establishments extends to all industrial establishments of multi-establishment enterprises employing at least 20 persons. In certain cases, industrial establishments of enterprises with fewer employees are also included in the inquiry. Industrial units owned by municipalities are also included in the inquiry.
The inquiry on establishment structure and personnel is intended for enterprises in the construction, trade and services. The inquiry on establishment structure and personnel concerns several establishments of an enterprise that comprise an entity at the two-digit level of the industry category. The purpose of the inquiry on establishment structure and personnel is to ease the response load of large multi-industry enterprises.
All enterprises with more than 60 employees and enterprises with a turnover of more than EUR 40 million or a balance sheet of more than EUR 300 million are included in the financial statements inquiry for enterprises. The enterprises employing between 10 and 60 persons are selected to the inquiry by means of random sampling. A number of enterprises with fewer employees and all municipal enterprises are also included. A total of approximately 6,000 enterprises are included in the inquiry.
Business tax data contain the financial statements of all enterprises and self-employed persons falling under the scope of the Business Tax Act.
For the data contents of the inquiries, go to: https://tilastokeskus.fi/keruu/index_en.html
Frequency of data collection
Principles and outlines
Contact organisation unit
Legal acts and other agreements
The compilation of statistics is guided by the Statistics Act. The Statistics Act contains provisions on collection of data, processing of data and the obligation to provide data. Besides the Statistics Act, the Data Protection Act and the Act on the Openness of Government Activities are applied to processing of data when producing statistics.
Statistics Finland compiles statistics in line with the EU’s regulations applicable to statistics, which steer the statistical agencies of all EU Member States.
Further information: Statistical legislation
Compilation of the statistics is also guided by the following legislation:
- Accounting Act and Decree 3012. 1997/1336
- Regulation (EU) 2019/2152 of the European Parliament and of the Council on European business statistics and Commission Implementing regulation (EU) 2020/1197.
- Regulation (EEC) No 696/93 on statistical units is applied to the statistics on business activities.
- Regulation on industrial classifications; Standard Industrial Classification 2008 is based on the European Union’s common industrial classification (NACE Rev. 2), which has been supplemented for national needs on the 5-digit level.
Confidentiality - policy
The data protection of data collected for statistical purposes is guaranteed in accordance with the requirements of the Statistics Act (280/2004), the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999), the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and the Data Protection Act (1050/2018). The data materials are protected at all stages of processing with the necessary physical and technical solutions. Statistics Finland has compiled detailed directions and instructions for confidential processing of the data. Employees have access only to the data essential for their duties. The premises where unit-level data are processed are not accessible to outsiders. Members of the personnel have signed a pledge of secrecy upon entering the service. Violation of data protection is punishable.
Further information: Data protection | Statistics Finland (stat.fi)
Confidentiality - data treatment
The threshold value rule is used when assessing the data disclosure risk, and the rule applies to all industries. The protected data are suppressed. In primary suppression, data on an individual industry group are protected by suppression if the group has data on one or two enterprises. In secondary encryption, the data are suppressed so that the primarily protected data cannot be derived. The same encryption rules apply to the information services, and stricter encryption procedures can be applied on a case-by-case basis.
Statistics Finland publishes new statistical data at 8 am on weekdays in its web service. The release times of statistics are given in advance in the release calendar available in the web service. The data are public after they have been updated in the web service.
Further information: Publication principles for statistics at Statistics Finland
Data on establishments are also available subject to charge within the limits of confidentiality provisions. Further information: email@example.com
Micro-level data on establishments are also available to researchers through Statistics Finland’s research services.
Accessibility and clarity
Statistical data are published as database tables in the StatFin database. The database is the primary publishing site of data, and new data are updated first there. When releasing statistical data, existing database tables can be updated with new data or completely new database tables can be published.
In addition to statistical data published in the StatFin database, a release on the key data is usually published in the web service. If the release contains data concerning several reference periods (e.g. monthly and annual data), a review bringing together these data is published in the web service. Database tables updated at the time of publication are listed both in the release and in the review. In some cases, statistical data can also be published as mere database releases in the StatFin database. No release or review is published in connection with these database releases.
Releases and database tables are published in three languages, in Finnish, Swedish and English. The language versions of releases may have more limited content than in Finnish.
Information about changes in the publication schedules of releases and database tables and about corrections are given as change releases in the web service.
Data revision - policy
Revisions – i.e. improvements in the accuracy of statistical data already published – are a normal feature of statistical production and result in improved quality of statistics. The principle is that statistical data are based on the best available data and information concerning the statistical phenomenon. On the other hand, the revisions are communicated as transparently as possible in advance. Advance communication ensures that the users can prepare for the data revisions.
The reason why data in statistical releases become revised is often caused by the data becoming supplemented. Then the new, revised statistical figure is based on a wider information basis and describes the phenomenon more accurately than before.
Revisions of statistical data may also be caused by the calculation method used, such as annual benchmarking or updating of weight structures. Changes of base years and used classifications may also cause revisions to data.
Quality management requires comprehensive guidance of activities. The quality management framework of the field of statistics is the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP). The frameworks complement each other. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are also compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice.
Further information: Quality management | Statistics Finland (stat.fi)
Data are released to all users at the same time. Statistical data may only be handled at Statistics Finland and information on them may be given before release only by persons involved in the production of the statistics concerned or who need the data of the statistics concerned in their own work before the data are published.
Further information: Publication principles for statistics
Are you looking for previously published documentation?
The documentation released before 5.4.2022 can be found on the archive pages of the statistics.Go to the archive page