19.8.2022 valid documentation

Basic data of the statistics

Data description

In these statistics, consumption of heating energy in indoor spaces comprises the energy consumption of the main heating system and those of other forms of supplementary heating, inclusive of equipment associated with ventilation and heat distribution. Energy consumption of household appliances comprises the energy consumption of lighting, cooking and other electrical appliances.

Statistical population

The population of energy consumption in households comprises all dwellings and residential buildings located in Finland that are in the ownership or possession of households, inclusive of the yards surrounding them.
The data on energy consumption in households are primarily collected from sellers of energy. Sector-specific accuracy of the data varies by energy source. Creation of the sectoral division is described in the section Processing of the data.

 

Statistical unit

A dwelling or residential building in housing use in the ownership or possession of a household, inclusive of the surrounding yards is the basic unit used in these statistics.
The statistics are derived from the sales statistics of energy enterprises. In the compilation of the statistics, sector-specific breakdown of sales of energy enterprises are specified and models are used to break down the total sales into different purposes by energy source. The data on the use of wood are based on separate sample surveys carried out approximately every ten years. The figures for the years between the surveys are estimated with purpose of use models.
The purpose of use models are calibrated by means of sample surveys and separate reports. The volume data required for the statistics are drawn from registers. Slight differences between volume data obtained from registers and the population have been identified.

 

Unit of measure

The data are published in joules (terajoule TJ, petajoule PJ) and watt-hours (gigawatt-hour GWh). The data collected for the statistics are also supplied for international reports, in which case the data may also be reported in such units as thousands of tonnes.

Reference period

The reference period used in the statistics is one year.

Reference area

The data on energy consumption in households are primarily collected from sellers of energy. Sector-specific accuracy of the data varies by energy source. Creation of the sectoral division is described in the section Processing of the data.

Sector coverage

Statistics on energy consumption in households cover all dwellings and residential buildings located in Finland that are in the ownership or possession of households and the yards surrounding them, and describe the energy used in the dwellings and residential buildings in question by energy source.

Time coverage

Data on energy consumption in households are available from 2008 onwards. The data may be revised in connection with a new release for the whole length of the time series.

Frequency of dissemination

The data are published in November or December each year following the statistical year.

Concepts

Ambient energy

Ambient energy refers to energy extracted with heat pumps from the environment (ground, air or water) for space heating. Ambient energy is the difference between the heat produced by heat pumps and the electricity they consume. Electricity used by heat pumps in cooling use, as well as electricity used by heat pumps in heating use, are in this examination included in electricity consumption of heating.

Coefficient for specific annual consumption

In these statistics, the coefficient for specific annual consumption describes the consumption of different energy sources per cubic metre built (kWh/m3).

Consumption of heating energy in spaces

Consumption of heating energy in spaces comprises the consumption of fuels, electricity, district heating, and ambient energy. Heating energy comprises the energy of the main heating system and those of other forms of supplementary heating, inclusive of devices associated with ventilation and heat distribution. In these statistics, supplementary heating is referred to as additional heating. Some of the electricity used by housing companies in residential properties has also been allocated to heating and ventilation systems. Consumption includes energy sources bought or otherwise acquired for housing (e.g. wood fuel produced for own use) and losses from the use of fuels (e.g. boiler losses).

Cubic capacity of residential buildings

For buildings completed after the beginning of 1980, data on cubic capacity of residential buildings are available from a register. For buildings completed prior to this, missing data on cubic capacity are imputed by means of data available from the building stock on floor area and cubic capacity by purpose of use and year of construction.

Energy consumption in households

Includes consumption of energy needed for heating spaces in residential buildings and domestic water, and electricity used for household appliances. The use of natural gas and liquid gas in cooking as well as the use of wood and electricity for heating saunas are also included. Energy consumption of the means of transport (incl. private cars) used by households is not included in energy consumption in households but in energy consumption of transport.

Energy consumption of cooking

Calculations of energy consumption of cooking take into consideration stoves and ovens. The main energy source used in cooking is electricity, to some degree town gas and liquid gas, wood and charcoal. The use of wood and charcoal is estimated to be marginal and they are excluded from these statistics.

Energy consumption of domestic water heating

Energy consumption of domestic water heating comprises the energy used for heating water. The majority of residential buildings in Finland have central heating system by water circulation in which case water is heated with the same main energy source. Major dry heating systems are direct electrical heating, stove heating and air circulation central heating. In these systems, water is usually heated using a separate electrical storage boiler (hot water tank).

Energy consumption of electrical equipment

Energy consumption of electrical equipment comprises the energy used by pieces of electrical equipment in dwellings and real estate properties. Electrical equipment include e.g. microwave ovens, coffee makers and kettles, refrigeration equipment, washing machines, tumble dryers, televisions and computers with their accessories, cellar cooling systems, lifts and vehicle engine block and interior heating. Electrical sauna stoves and equipment related to heat distribution and ventilation are included in electricity consumption of heating.

Energy consumption of household appliances

Energy consumption of household appliances comprises the energy used for electrical appliances, lighting and cooking.

Energy consumption of lighting

Energy consumption of lighting comprises the energy used for lighting residential buildings and their surrounding grounds. Some of the electricity used by housing companies in residential buildings is also used for lighting common areas. The energy source for lighting covered by this examination is electricity; the share of other energy sources is assumed to be marginal.

Energy consumption of sauna heating

Energy consumption of sauna heating comprises the energy used for heating sauna stoves. Sauna stoves are usually heated with wood or electricity. In addition to detached house and apartment-specific saunas, the consumption also covers building-specific saunas in blocks of flats and wood-heated saunas in free-time residences.

Energy sources / heat sources

Energy sources for residential buildings comprise fuels, electricity, district heat and ambient energy. Electricity includes grid electricity only; self-produced electricity in the form of e.g. solar or wind power is left outside this examination for the time being.

Floor area of residential buildings

The floor area of residential buildings is obtained as gross floor area from the building stock. Gross floor area is the combined floor area of the storeys of buildings. Gross floor area includes the floor area of each storey up to the external surfaces of exterior walls.

Fuels

Fuels used as energy sources for residential buildings here include wood, peat, coal, light fuel oil, heavy fuel oil, natural gas and liquid gas.

Ground heat

Ground heat comprises the heat extracted from a bored well and collection pipework. Heat extracted from water bodies is also included in ground heat in this examination. The electricity consumed by ground heat pumps is not included in ground heat but in electricity consumption of heating.

Heating degree day (HDD)

Figures describing the annual heating requirement in different localities have been calculated for indoor temperature of 17°C assuming that heating is stopped in spring when outdoor temperature rises above 10°C and started in autumn when it falls below 12°C. Figures for heating degree days are produced by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. These statistics have been compiled by using the heating degree day figure for Jyväskylä to describe the average heating requirement for the whole of Finland.

Housing

In these statistics, housing refers to energy consumption in households. Housing covers residential buildings in housing use inclusive of their saunas and surrounding yards. For surrounding yards, the examination includes electrical equipment only i.e. outdoor lighting and car/block heaters.

Net effective heating energy

Net effective heating energy is the part of energy acquired for a residential building that can be exploited in heating. Some of the acquired energy is wasted due to fuel conversion and transmission losses. Bet effective heating energy has been calculated by deducting heating system losses from the amount of energy used for heating of spaces. District and electric heating are net effective heating energy as such. Net effective heating energy of heat pumps has been calculated as the sum of produced ambient heat and consumed electricity. The following assumed net effective heating energy ratios have been used for other energy sources:
- Small combustion of wood 55%
- Peat 60%
- Coal 60%
- Heavy fuel oil 83%
- Light fuel oil 78%
- Natural gas 90%

The assumed net effective heating energy ratios are based on the REM model (model for calculating energy consumption for the building stock) jointly developed by the Tampere University of Technology and the Technical Research Centre of Finland.

Residential building

In these statistics, residential buildings refer to the main categories of Residential buildings (A) and Free-time residential buildings (B) in Statistics Finland's classification of buildings. These are divided into the following sub-categories:
- detached houses: one and two-dwelling houses, semi-detached houses and other detached and semi-detached houses.
- terraced houses: rowhouses, terraced houses and other attached houses
- blocks of flats: balcony-access blocks and houses with at least three dwellings of which at least two are on top of each other.
- free-time residential buildings: detached summer cottages or free-time residences mainly intended for private use.

Unit specific consumption

Unit specific consumption refers to the average annual consumption of a certain equipment group. When it is multiplied by the number of pieces of equipment, the total annual consumption of the equipment group is obtained.

Unoccupied residential building

In this examination, a residential building is unoccupied if it contains no permanently occupied dwelling units according to register data.

Accuracy, reliability and timeliness

Overall accuracy

The statistics on energy consumption in households are derived from the sales data of energy enterprises that are broken down into sector-specific end uses by means of models. Coverage and sectoral breakdown of the sales data and the accuracy of the data vary by energy source.
•    The total volumes of electricity sales are known. There is some uncertainty concerning the sectoral breakdown of the sales as power companies report housing and agriculture as a single entity. Electricity generation in households by means of solar panels is estimated.
•    Sales figures for district heating and regional heating are collected from a number of different sources and the smallest power companies are not included. Moreover, some of the operators fail to supply sales data and/or fail to break down the sales into sectors. These data are imputed.
•    The data on sales of oil products (light and heavy fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas) are collected for each product separately and the breakdown into sectors and areas of use are made by means of models. A small amount of liquefied petroleum gas is currently reported under natural gas.
•    Use of wood and other biomass is based on a sample survey, which is carried out approximately every ten years. The figures for the years between the surveys are estimated by means of a model.
•    The data on net energy generated by heat pumps are produced with a calculation model by using the sales data of heat pump entrepreneurs and assumptions on heat requirements. The equipment numbers are checked on the basis of sample data. The process of verifying energy data is currently under development.  
•    Sales figures for natural gas are known by sector.
•    Coal and peat are the solid fossil fuels included in the statistics. They are only used in small scale and the volumes are estimated on the basis of models. The extent of the heating method is monitored by means of sample surveys.

 

Timeliness

The statistics are published approximately 11 months after the end of the statistical year.

Punctuality

The statistics are published in accordance with the release calendar.

Comparability

Comparability - geographical

The data for Finland cover the whole country.
Different countries use different methods to produce the data (sample, total survey) and the statistical concepts are not yet well-established. For example, some countries exclude holiday homes from the statistics. There are also differences in classifications. In Finland, cooling is included in other consumption, while natural gas includes small amounts of liquefied petroleum gas.  For this reason, comparisons between individual countries are not straightforward.

 

Comparability - over time

The time series of energy consumption in households are comparable from 2008 onwards.

Coherence - cross domain

The statistics on energy consumption in households are coherent with other energy statistics. The breakdown of housing heating methods has been published in the reviews of the statistics. At the moment, the data on heating methods available in Statistics Finland databases are not up to date.

Coherence - internal

The data are coherent within the statistics.

Source data and data collections

Source data

Most of the data on energy sales contained in the statistics are collected as part of the joint collection of data for the energy statistics. Data are collected in cooperation with industry associations, and data obtained from registers are also used. Sales data are compared with generation, import and export data.

The collection of the sales data is described in more detail below:
•    The data on electricity sales are collected by Finnish Energy. The data are supplied using the following sectoral breakdown: housing and agriculture, industry, services, and other. The data cover practically all electricity networks and the electricity sold through them. In addition to the electricity purchased from power companies, electricity end use also includes the electricity generated by households themselves. Its volumes are estimated on an imputed basis by using the data on the number of solar panels collected by the Energy Authority from network companies.
•    Sales data on district heating are supplied by Finnish Energy and the Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities. The heat production inquiry of Statistics Finland is used as a supplementary data source. The inquiry covers separate heat generation and it is sent to heat producers with a total annual generation of 10,000 megawatt hours (MWh) or with a heath generation capacity of at least five megawatts (MW). The smallest enterprises selling regional heating are not included in the survey.
•    The Natural Resources Institute Finland carries out a survey on the use of firewood in heating approximately every ten years. In the years between the surveys, the data are generalised on an imputed basis.
•    Heat pump sales data are collected by the Finnish Heat Pump Association each year. The energy calculations are carried out on the basis of models.
•    Statistics Finland carries out its own inquiry to collect sales data on oil and biofuels. Approximately 15 data suppliers take part in the inquiry about monthly fuel sales and stock data.
•    Natural gas sales data are obtained from the Finnish Gas Association. In connection with the opening of the natural gas markets, Gasgrid Finland introduced a gas hub, from which Statistics Finland will in the future obtain the natural gas sales data.
•    Coal and peat are only used in small scale and for this reason, no housing-related data on their use are collected. Instead, the estimate on the use of these fuels is model-based. The data are verified from other sources as required.

 

Data collection

See other data collections of energy statistics.

Frequency of data collection

The data are collected once a year.

Methods

Data compilation

There are two stages in the processing of the data:
1.    Producing sectoral breakdown for the sales data
2.    Modellings for areas of use

Energy sales data are divided between sectors as follows:
•    For electricity, the energy used by agriculture is estimated by using the sample-based data collected by the Natural Resources Institute Finland from agricultural and horticultural enterprises and by verifying the data size category on the basis of Finnish Tax Administration data for the years for which no data based on sample surveys are available.
•    The sectoral breakdown missing from district heat sales data is imputed manually by using data on the breakdown of the building volumes equipped with district heating in the company’s area of operations (municipality) and specific consumption figures for area of use modellings. (This is currently done manually but rules-based imputation will be introduced in the future.) Adjustments: currently, calculations by the Natural Resources Institute Finland on the use of wood are transferred to international calculations but after that they are not incorporated into consumption breakdowns.
•    The sectoral breakdown for natural gas is used in unchanged form.   
•    Sales data on oil products are collected for each product (and region). The sectoral breakdown for oil products is created in the modelling of areas of use. Light and heavy fuel oil (heating) and liquefied petroleum gas (heating and cooking) are the products used by households.  The use of heating energy in housing is estimated using the building heating model. The percentage of motor-driven machines of the fuels referred to above is estimated using the TYKO model of the Lipasto model structure created by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. The use of oil products estimated with these models is incorporated into the sales data.   

Modellings for areas of use:

The modellings for areas of use are based on three different models: Statistics Finland maintains the heating model and the electrical equipment model. The heat pump model has been developed in cooperation with the Finnish Heat Pump Association.

 

Data validation

Sum-level checks are made to ensure that the energy data constitute a coherent time series.

Principles and outlines

Contact organisation

Statistics Finland

Contact organisation unit

Economic and Environmental Statistics

Legal acts and other agreements

The statistics are part of the Official Statistics of Finland (OSF) and the European Statistical System (ESS).
The obligation to provide data is statutory based on the Statistics Act (280/2004, Section 14) according to which practitioners of trade are obliged to provide Statistics Finland with such data that are necessary for the compilation of statistics. Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics obliges Statistics Finland to supply the EU with data that include statistics on energy consumption in households.
Statistics Finland is also obliged to supply energy statistics to the IEA, an agency operating under the auspices of the OECD.

Confidentiality - policy

The data protection of data collected for statistical purposes is absolutely guaranteed in accordance with the Statistics Act (280/2004), the Personal Data Act (532/1999) and the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999), as well as the requirements of the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (2016/679). The data materials are protected at all stages of processing with the necessary physical and technical solutions. Statistics Finland has compiled detailed directions and instructions for confidential processing of the data. Employees have access only to the data essential for their duties. The premises where unit-level data are processed are not accessible to outsiders. Members of the personnel have signed a pledge of secrecy upon entering the service. Wilful breaching of data protection is punishable.

Confidentiality - data treatment

The tables for the statistics are produced at national level, which means that details of individual enterprises or households cannot be identified.

Release policy

Statistics Finland’s release calendar lists in advance all the statistical data and publications to be released over the year. Statistical releases can be found under statistics-specific releases. The statistical data are released on the Internet at 8 am unless otherwise indicated. The calendar is updated on weekdays. Statistics Finland’s release calendar for the coming year is published in December each year.

Data sharing

Most of the data on energy sales contained in the statistics are obtained as part of the joint collection of data for the energy statistics. Data are collected in cooperation with sectoral organisations, and  data obtained from registers are also used.

Accessibility and clarity

The statistics are published on the website of the statistics, and the data contained in them are also made available in the energy statistics table service. The data are also used in the Energy in Finland Pocketbook.

Quality assessment

The statistics on energy consumption in households are derived from the sales data of energy enterprises that are broken down into sector-specific end uses by means of models. Coverage and sectoral breakdown of the sales data and the accuracy of the data vary by energy source. Quality of the data is assessed at various stages of the statistical process and the set of statistics is incorporated into the energy balance sheet each year.

Quality assurance

When compiling statistics, Statistics Finland observes the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP) and the Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) based on them. The Code of Practice concerns the independence and accountability of statistical authorities and the quality of processes and data to be published. The principles are in line with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics approved by the United Nations Statistics Division and are supplementary to them. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are also compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice. The principles are also compatible with those of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM). More information about this is available on Statistics Finland’s quality management pages.
Statistics Finland conducts statistical audits every year to ensure the high quality of the statistics.
 

User access

The data are made available simultaneously to all users on the website of the statistics at https://stat.fi/til/asen/index_en.html Data users do not have access to the data before the official publication date.

Statistical experts

Virve Rouhiainen
Senior Statistician
029 551 3527

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