4.7.2022 valid documentation

Basic data of the statistics

Data description

The structure of earnings statistics describe the hourly and monthly earnings of wage and salary earners working in Finland, as well as their formation and distribution. The hourly and monthly earnings are total earnings and comprise not only basic salaries but also all regularly paid bonuses and fringe benefits and overtime compensations, but not holiday allowances or performance bonuses. 

The monthly earnings are calculated in the statistics for full-time wage and salary earners, while hourly earnings are calculated for both full-time and part-time wage and salary earners. 

Earnings can be examined in the statistics on the basis of characteristics relating to either employees or enterprises, see Section Classifications.

Statistical population

All wage and salary earners who work in industries B to S (TOL 2008) in enterprises with more than five employees.

Statistical unit

The structure of earnings statistics are based on data reported by enterprises. However, the statistics are published at the level of wage and salary earners or employment relationship, depending on the earnings to be published. The monthly earnings data describe the data of full-time wage and salary earners and hourly earnings data different employment relationships although the term ‘wage and salary earners’ is also used in the statistics in the latter case. This means that in the hourly earnings data one wage and salary earner can represent more than one wage and salary earner if they have more than one employment relationship. 

Data from different sources are combined on the basis of surrogate data based on employees’ personal identity codes and enterprises’ business IDs. 

Unit of measure

Earnings are expressed in EUR per month or in EUR per paid hour. ‘Hour paid’ means all hours for which earnings have been paid, whether or not the employee was actually working at that time. For example, if the employer has paid wages for a period of sick leave, the period of sick leave is counted in hours paid. Note: The term ‘hour worked’ only covers the hours during which the employee has actually performed their duties. 

Base period

The structure of earnings statistics are published annually as separate statistics. The statistics for each year only describe the statistical year in question, and comparability with previous years cannot be fully guaranteed. Thus, the base period is not relevant in the statistics. 

Reference area

The reference area of the structure of earnings statistics is the whole of Finland. The available regional classifications are: Municipalities and
Regions.

Sector coverage

The structure of earnings statistics describe wage and salary earners in industries B to S (Standard Industrial Classification TOL 2008). For the public sector (municipalities, central government), it covers all wage and salary earners who have worked in these industries during the statistical reference month. For the private sector, the structure of earnings statistics describe wage and salary earners working in enterprises with more than five employees.

Time coverage

The statistics have been published since 1995. The data are published annually. Each annual publication is supplemented by another release for the same statistical year, which adds to the statistics the data on the place of work of the employee and where it is located and the sector in which the establishment operates.

Frequency of dissemination

The data of the structure of earnings statistics are published annually on Statistics Finland’s website. The first release of the statistical year is published approximately nine months after the end of the reference period. The second release, which supplements the data with industry and location data, is published approximately 15 months after the end of the reference period. 

Concepts

Bonuses and allowances not paid in each pay period

Bonuses and allowances not paid in each pay period are such as performance-based bonuses, holiday bonus and holiday supplement and seniority increments paid in some hourly paid fields. Payment of one-off pay components can also be based on collectively bargained agreements.

Structural statistics on wages and salaries:
Holiday supplement paid for days off not taken is not included in these bonuscomponents in the structural statistics on wages and salaries.

Index of wage and salary earnings:
The index of wage and salary earnings measures the development of earnings from regular working hours regardless of the mode of payment. Components paid on the basis of performance are included in the earnings concept so that they are divided evenly over the whole calendar year. Similarly, bonuses and allowances not paid in each pay period based on collective agreements are evenly divided for the whole year. All these components belonging to the concept of index of wage and salary earnings, such as holiday bonuses are not included in data on wages and salaries used in the calculation of the index, but they are taken into consideration in index calculation only in case changes in their relative share are agreed in collective bargaining. In the index of wage and salary earnings contractual pay increases paid retrospectively are also taken to the quarter when they were earned.

Labour cost survey:
In the concepts of the labour cost survey compensations for termination of an employment relationship belonging to bonuses and allowances not paid in each pay period are included in social costs.

Labour cost index:
In the labour cost index bonuses and allowances not paid in each pay period also include contractual pay increases paid retrospectively from previous pay periods. The labour cost index also contains incentive stock options according to their exercise value.
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Bonuses and allowances not paid in each pay period are not published in the statistics on private sector and local government wages and salaries. These components are not included in the index of regular earnings.

Collective agreement sector

Collective agreement sector is determined in the collective labour agreement applied in the employment relationship concerned. In the municipal sector the collective agreement sectors are specified in the main contract between the Commission for Local Authority Employers and employee organisations. A collective labour agreement is an agreement between an employee organisation and an employer or an employer organisation on the sector-specific terms of employment. Among others, the pay, working hours, vacations and other benefits that apply within the scope of the agreement are agreed on in the collective agreement. The agreements are often sector specific, but are also bound by the occupational status of the wage or salary earner concerned and are concluded for a fixed period.

Employee

A wage and salary earner (employee) is a person, who has an employment relationship with an employer and who is compensated for work performed. Wage and salary earners are either salaried employees or workers of the employer.

In statistics on wages and salaries, wage and salary earners are as a rule not divided into salaried employees and workers. A division can, however, be made according to profession or pay system. In statistics on wages and salaries, entrepreneurs paying their own salaries are not classified as wage and salary earners, as their earnings usually differ too much from the earnings of other similar wage and salary earners. In these statistics a single wage and salary earner may have several employment relationships that are, however, all treated as separate instances of wage and salary earner in the statistics.

Self-employed persons who pay even part of their earnings as salary to themselves are recorded as wage and salary earners in the labour cost statistics.

Employer sector

Employer sector describes the structure of the labour market and is determined by the decision-making unit. The classification of employer sectors used in statistics on wages and salaries and in statistics on labour costs is a national adaptation of the Classification of Sectors that is used in economic and social statistics (Classification of Sectors 2000).

The classification used in statistics on wages and salaries has the following structure:

Local government sector
Operating units of municipalities and joint municipal boards, and municipal enterprises
Central government sector
Agencies and institution financed from the State budget

Private sector
Private enterprises, enterprises with central or local government majority holding and state enterprises
Non-profit corporations, parishes, and organisations and foundations are also included in the private sector in statistics on wages and salaries.

The structure of the classification of sectors used in statistics on labour costs and in the labour cost index is similar to that of the classification used in statistics on wages and salaries.

In the index of wage and salary earnings, non-profit corporations, parishes and organisations form a separate employer sector of their own (Others).

Full-time

Structural statistics on wages and salaries:
In structural statistics on wages and salaries, the division into full-time and part-time employment is based on regular weekly working hours. In these statistics, employment relationships with regular weekly working hours exceeding 90 per cent of the general working time in the industry are defined as full-time. It has not been possible to define employment as full-time or part-time for wage earners whose regular working hours are not known. This may be due to non-reporting or irregular working hours of the person in question. For public sector teachers, full-time and part-time employment has been defined on the basis of the conditions of the employment relationship. In the structural statistics on wages and salaries, private sector teachers whose weekly teaching duty is at least 16 hours are defined as working full-time.
Statistics on private sector wages and salaries:

For private sector monthly wage earners, the definition of full-time employment is based on weekly working hours, as in the structural statistics of wages and salaries. In these statistics, wage and salary earners whose regular weekly working hours exceed 90 per cent of the general working time in the industry are defined as working full-time.
Information on other wage and salary earners' full-time employment is obtained through inquiries or defined according to the employment relationship. If a wage and salary earner's regular weekly working hours are not known, also information on earnings is used to define full-time employment.

The distinction between full-time and part-time employment is not made separately for private sector hourly wage earners.

Statistics on public sector wages and salaries:

For wage and salary earners in the public sector, full-time and part-time employment is defined on the basis of the character and conditions of the employment relationship. Information on full-time and part-time employment is usually obtained through inquiries.

Labour cost survey:

In statistics on labour cost, an employee whose working hours are specified in the collective agreement for government employees or the collective agreement, or the regular working time of the unit in question, is defined as working full-time.

Cf. Part-time

Hourly wage earner

The earnings of an hourly wage earner are mainly based on the hours actually worked. In addition, an hourly wage earner may have earnings for working time not worked. Compensation for hours worked and hours not worked can be paid several times a month. An hourly wage earner is usually a worker. The pay system is determined by the collective labour agreement.

Hours paid

Hours paid refer to those hours of total working time for which wage and salary earners are paid. Hours paid can be hours worked or not worked, or absences (annual leaves, sick leaves, public holidays, other time off).

Hours worked

Statistics on wages and salaries:

In statistics on wages and salaries, statistics on earnings in the industries which pay hourly wages are compiled for hours actually worked. Hours actually worked refers to the working time an employee has spent on his/her actual duties. Hours actually worked include time and piece rate work and contract work hours as well as Sunday and overtime hours. Working hours are based on the Working Hours Act.

Labour cost survey:

Hours actually worked refer to the working time an employee has spent on his/her actual duties. They also include Sunday and overtime work. Hours actually worked include time spent in training, but not unpaid overtime. In labour cost statistics, hours actually worked can be defined also as paid hours minus paid leave.

Monthly wage earner

Monthly wage earners are remunerated for work performed on a monthly basis. Earnings are usually based on one month's working time and tend to stay the same from month to month. Monthly wage earners are normally salaried employees. The pay system is determined in the collective agreement.

Occupation

In statistics on wages and salaries, descriptions of occupations of wage or salary earners are based on field-specific titles of occupations, posts and tasks, and on the Classification of Occupations of Statistics Finland (Classification of Occupations 2001). The approximate number of the used field-specific occupational titles is 15,000.

In respect of the private sector the occupational titles used in statistics on wages and salaries derive from the nomenclature of occupations and tasks of the fields covered by the collective labour agreements of the Confederation of Finnish Industries EK, the nomenclature of tasks of Kirkon työmarkkinalaitos (labour market organisation of the Church) and the nomenclature of occupations of Näyttämöväen Vanhuudenturvasäätiö (foundation for pension security of stage and screen employees). The titles of occupations and tasks in the local government sector are based on the Local Government Pensions Institution's classification of occupations. The titles of occupations and tasks in the central government sector comply with the titles of occupations or tasks of letters of appointment or collective labour agreements.

The occupations in statistics on wages and salaries are classified basing on these nomenclatures of occupational titles by taking into consideration the employer sector, educational qualification and industry of the wage and salary earner. Field-specific titles of occupations or tasks are not published in statistics on wage and salary structures, where only the classification of occupations is used in describing occupations.

Part-time

Structural statistics on wages and salaries:

In structural statistics on wages and salaries, the division into full-time and part-time employment is based on regular weekly working hours. In these statistics, employment relationships with regular weekly working hours that are more than 10 per cent shorter than the general working time in the industry are defined as part-time. It has not been possible to define employment as full-time or part-time for wage and salary earners whose regular weekly working hours are not known. This may be due to either non-reporting or irregular working hours of the person in question. For public sector teachers, full-time and part-time employment has been defined on the basis of the conditions of the employment relationship. In the structural statistics on wages and salaries, private sector teachers whose weekly teaching duty is less than 16 hours are defined as working part-time.

Statistics on private sector wages and salaries:

For private sector monthly wage and salary earners, the definition of part-time employment is generally based on weekly working hours, as in the structural statistics of wages and salaries. In these statistics, wage and salary earners whose regular weekly working hours are over 10 per cent shorter than the general working time in the industry are defined as working part-time.

Information on other wage and salary earners' part-time employment is obtained through inquiries or defined according to the employment relationship. If a wage and salary earner's regular weekly working hours are not known, also information on earnings is used to define part-time employment.

The division between full-time and part-time employment is not made separately for private sector hourly wage earners.

Statistics on public sector wages and salaries:

For public sector wage and salary earners, full-time and part-time employment is defined on the basis of the character and conditions of the employment relationship. Information on full-time and part-time employment is usually obtained through inquiries.

Labour cost survey:

In statistics on labour cost, an employee whose working hours are shorter than the working hours specified in the collective agreement for government employees or the collective agreement, or the general working time of the unit in question, is defined as working part-time.

Cf. Full-time

Regular wages

Regular wages for each pay period include
- basic pay
- supplements based on duties, professional skill, years of service etc.
- supplements based on location and conditions of workplace
- premium pay
- performance-based pay components for salaried employees, workers' performance-based earnings
- taxation value for fringe benefits
- (in structural statistics on wages and salaries also pay for working hours not worked).

Regular wages do not include one-off items, such as holiday and performance bonuses. The concept of regular wages including performance-based bonuses is, however, also used in statistics on wages and salaries.

Regular wages are used in all statistics on wages and salaries, but the content may vary according to the statistics. In statistics on hourly wages, for example, regular wages include wages for time and piece rate work and contract work for the regular working time as well as the basic component of Sunday and overtime pay, but not the premia.

Cf. Total earnings

Total earnings

Total earnings describe the wages paid for regular working hours and other working hours, such as overtime or extra work. Cf. Total working hours.

Total earnings for each pay period include
- basic pay
- supplements based on duties, professional skill, years of service etc.
- supplements based on location and conditions of workplace
- premium pay
- performance-based pay components for salaried employees, wage earners' performance-based earnings
- taxation value for fringe benefits
- earnings for extra and overtime work
- in part also eventual compensation for on-call or urgent work
- other irregularly paid supplements
- (in structural statistics on wages and salaries also pay for working hours not worked).

Total earnings do not include one-off items, such as holiday and performance-based bonuses.

In statistics on wages and salaries, the concept of total earnings including performance bonuses is also used.

The concept of total earnings is used in all statistics on wages and salaries, but its content may vary according to the statistics. In statistics on private sector hourly wages and salaries, for example, total earnings include earnings from regular working hours as well as Sunday and overtime pay premia.

Cf. Regular wages

Total working hours

In structural statistics on wages and salaries, total working hours are calculated on the basis of personal regular weekly working hours and the average paid hours of extra and overtime work. On-call hours are not included in the total working hours. Total working hours describe the monthly working hours that form the basis for the payment of wages.

Total working hours cannot be defined in structural statistics on wages and salaries, if an employee's regular weekly working hours are not known.

Total earnings are based on total working hours. Cf. Total earnings

Cf. Regular weekly working hours

Type of contractual employment relationship

Type of contractual employment relationship describes the legal relationship between an employee and employer. In statistics on wages and salaries contractual employment relationships are referred to as either permanent /valid indefinitely or fixed-term. A contractual employment relationship may also concern specific employee categories such as trainees, trainees on apprenticeship contracts, persons with disabilities and those employed with employment promotion subsidies.

The data is usually directly obtained from inquiries for statistics on wages and salaries. In statistics on the structure of earnings, data on persons employed with employment promotion subsidies are supplemented by data obtained from the register of job seekers of the Ministry of Employment and the Economy.

Employment relationship is the corresponding concept referred to in the statistics on wages and salaries in the municipal sector and the corresponding statistics of the government.

Cf. atypical employment in the Labour Force Survey (fixed-term and/or part-time).

Type of employment relationship

Type of employment relationship describes the legal relationship between an employee and employer. In statistics on wages and salaries employment relationships are referred to as either permanent /valid indefinitely or fixed-term. An employment relationship may also concern specific employee categories such as trainees, trainees on apprenticeship contracts, persons with disabilities or those employed with employment promotion subsidies.

The data is usually directly obtained from inquiries for statistics on wages and salaries. In statistics on the structure of earnings, data on persons employed with employment promotion subsidies are supplemented by data obtained from the register of job seekers of the Ministry of Employment and the Economy.

Contractual employment relationship is the corresponding concept referred to in the statistics on wages and salaries in the private sector.

Cf. atypical employment in the Labour Force Survey (fixed-term and/or part-time).

Usual weekly working hours

Information on wage and salary earners' regular weekly working hours is usually collected in connection with wage inquiries. Regular weekly working hours are based on the Working Hours Act and are often in line with a specific working time system or working time mode. Sometimes regular weekly working hours can be agreed on separately and they may differ from the general working time of the industry. In the case of teachers, regular weekly working hours equal the number of hours on which weekly pay is based.

In the private sector, regular weekly working hours must average out to 40 hours per week within a reference period defined in the collective agreement. For public sector wage and salary earners with office working hours, average weekly working hours are 36.25 hours a week, and for those with general working hours 38.25 hours a week.

In structural statistics on wages and salaries, the regular 40-hour week of workers in industries which pay hourly wages has been shortened with industry-specific solutions, according to the so called "pekkassopimus". The basic consideration has been to secure the earlier income level. The shortening of working time with separate days off has been taken into account in determining regular weekly working hours in such a way that the regular weekly working hours for workers with a 40-hour week are 37.89 hours. The shortening of the working time of municipal hourly wage earners has been executed by shortening regular weekly working hours, not by adding paid or unpaid days off.

Regular wages are based on regular weekly working hours. Cf. Regular wages

Cf. Total working hours

Accuracy, reliability and timeliness

Overall accuracy

In the structure of earnings statistics, the data are obtained via enterprise surveys. Enterprises report data on their employees’ employment and earnings data. Thus, the accuracy of the statistics depends on the quality of their source data. Source data are verified and validated, and they are generally reliable. In individual cases, when examining earnings of a small number of employees, the data of the structure of earnings statistics are less reliable because, for example, due to the sample design of the source data, the selection of an individual enterprise as a respondent enterprise may affect the average earnings data of the population under review.

Timeliness

The data for the statistical year are based on year-end data (September–November), depending on the source. The data of the structure of earnings statistics are published approximately nine months after the end of the statistical reference year. The second release, which supplements the data with industry and location data, is published approximately 15 months after the end of the statistical reference year. The long delay is due to the fact that the data of the source, employment statistics, are not available earlier than this.

Comparability

Comparability - geographical

In principle, the data of the structure of earnings statistics are comparable between Finland’s different regions and municipalities. However, it should be noted that since the data are based on a sample in the case of the private sector, which is not standardised at regional or local level, inaccuracies may occur between different regions. 

Comparability - over time

The structure of earnings statistics are produced annually, but the statistics should not be examined from a time series perspective. In other words, it is not desirable to calculate annual changes based on the statistics. The data content of the statistics changes annually along with changes in the structure of occupations and industries in Finland, and, thus, the figures at the aggregate level describe the change on the level of the whole country, not on the level of wage and salary earners. In addition, non-response means that occupational data, especially at the most accurate level, are not comparable between years. For example, when examining developments in the earnings of wage and salary earners, the index of wage and salary earning is a better source than the structure of earnings statistics.

The structure of earnings statistics have been produced since 1995 without major methodological changes. The most significant methodological update was made in the structure of earnings statistics for 2001, and, as a result, the data for 1995 to 2000 are only comparable over the long term. The structure of earnings statistics produced after the statistical reference year 2001 constitute another coherent time series.

In the structure of earnings statistics for 2006, hourly earnings were calculated for teachers in the municipal sector for the first time. In addition, for the first time, earnings data were generated on wage and salary earners in the municipal sector who were paid reduced wages. Thus, data for the municipal sector in 2006 and beyond are not fully comparable with previous years.

In the 2014 structure of earnings statistics, the Tax Administration’s Palkka.fi service was used as an additional data source for the first time. This data source mainly contains data from small enterprises with fewer than ten employees and supplements the data content of the structure of earnings statistics in this respect. In 2014, data on some 26,000 wage and salary earners were obtained from the Palkka.fi service, which, inflated to the level of the basic population, represented around 60,000 wage and salary earners. On average, the adding of Palkka.fi as a data source had a downward effect on average earnings. The average earnings of all full-time wage and salary earners decreased by around EUR 15, with greater variations in individual occupational categories.

For the 2015 structure of earnings statistics, the rules for the formation of monthly earnings of hourly paid wage and salary earners were further specified. As a result, the earnings data are not comparable with several occupational groups in classes ‘8 Plant and machine operators and assemblers’ and ‘9 Elementary occupations’ from 2015 onwards.

In the 2018 structure of earnings statistics, changes were made to the calculation of hourly earnings of hourly paid wage and salary earners, see Changes to the statistics. The change affected the earnings of approximately 210,000 private-sector hourly wage earners, down by 3.9 per cent. Three-quarters of these wage earners worked in manufacturing and construction industries. As a result of the change, the hourly earnings data are not comparable with previous years.

Changes in the official classification of occupation weaken the comparability of data. The classification of occupations has been updated in 2001 and 2010. Although the 2001 update of the classification of occupations was less extensive than the 2010 update, it resulted in a break in continuity in the classification of occupations at the most accurate level. The 2010 update was comprehensive. The classification of occupations 2010 has been used since the 2010 structure of earnings statistics. The data by occupational category are only comparable at the roughest level of the classification of occupations for the years 1995 to 2009 and 2010 onwards, but not in full even at this level.
 

Coherence - cross domain

From the perspective of earnings, the main sources of comparison data for the structure of earnings statistics are the annual earnings statistics published by the Tax Administration and the earnings statistics published by the Finnish Centre for Pensions (ETK). The data of the structure of earnings statistics differ slightly from those of these statistics.

The data of the Tax Administration include all wage and salary earners who have received taxable earnings, and the ETK data include all wage and salary earners who have received earnings subject to pension contributions. The structure of earnings statistics cover wage and salary earners who have worked in enterprises with more than five employees.

In addition, the structure of earnings statistics report the earnings per month or per hour, i.e. the statistics describe the amount an employee earns or should earn at the pay level in question. The statistics of the Tax Administration and ETK include all earnings, such as earnings for one day, in their statistics with the same weight.

As regards the data on the numbers of wage and salary earners, the comparison is best made with the statistics on wages and salaries by employer sector, the labour force survey, and employment statistics. The numbers of wage and salary earners are almost identical when comparing the sectoral wage statistics, but there are differences in the numbers of wage and salary earners between the labour force survey and the employment statistics and the structure of earnings statistics due to the timing of the compilation of the statistics and different statistical populations.

It should also be noted that the differences in the numbers of wage and salary earners by sector are due to differing definitions: In the structure of earnings statistics, for example, the number of wage and salary earners in the central government sector is based on the employer sector, which includes the central government budget economy, while in the employment statistics and the labour force survey, the official Classification of Sectors 2012 is used. Sectoral practices for these statistics are being harmonised over the period from 2020 to 2022.
 

Coherence - internal

The data of the structure of earnings statistics are internally uniform. A uniform concept of ‘total earnings’ is applied to data from different sources. This facilitates comparability between different data sources.

Source data and data collections

Source data

Earnings and employment data are compiled from a variety of sources. The structure of earnings statistics combine Statistics Finland’s other statistics on wages and salaries into single statistics. These statistics are: private sector monthly salaries, private sector hourly wages, local government sector wages and salaries, and central government salaries. In addition, the wages and salaries data collected by the Tax Administration in its Palkka.fi service are used as additional data in the structural statistics on wages and salaries. 

The main data source of the statistics on monthly wages in the private sector is the data provided by the Confederation of Finnish Industries. In addition, the statistics are supplemented by data provided by the following organisations: Employers’ Federation of Road Transport (ALT), Finnish Central Organisation for Motor Trades and Repairs (AKL), Avaintyönantajat AVAINTA, Kirkon työmarkkinalaitos (KISV), and Theatre Info Finland TINFO. In addition to these data, the statistics are supplemented by data on non-organised enterprises collected by Statistics Finland by means of an inquiry. As a rule, the inquiry applies to all employees who are employed by the enterprises included in the sample. Data on wage and salary earners paid monthly are collected monthly.

The main source of data for the statistics on hourly wages in the private sector is the data of the Confederation of Finnish Industries. The statistics are supplemented by data collected from the above-mentioned organisations and by data on non-organised enterprises collected by Statistics Finland. 

The local government data are obtained by data collection carried out by Statistics Finland. The central government data are obtained from the TAHTI register. 

In addition, the data of the structure of earnings statistics are supplemented by data from the following sources: 
Business Register
Employment statistics
Education register
Population register
 

Data collection

No separate data collection is carried out for the structure of earnings statistics. See the quality description for the statistics on private-sector monthly salaries, the statistics on private-sector hourly salaries, or the statistics on local government sector wages and salaries. 

Frequency of data collection

The data used in the structure of earnings statistics are collected annually

Methods

Data compilation

Data compilation is focused on the harmonisation of source data. In addition, the data are checked for outliers using IQR and z-score methods.

Data validation

Source data are validated because they come from completed and published statistics, excluding Palkka.fi data, which are processed using separate statistical programs. The quality of the data is ensured by logical checks, by excluding non-credible values from the statistics, and by winsorising the data (by removing the smallest and largest values). 

Principles and outlines

Contact organisation

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Contact organisation unit

Social Statistics

Legal acts and other agreements

The compilation of statistics is guided by the general act of the national statistical service, the Statistics Act (280/2004, amend. 361/2013). Only the necessary data that are not available from administrative data sources are collected from data suppliers. Index series are published so that no individual enterprise’s data or development can be deduced from them.

The structure of earnings statistics are based on the following EU regulations and their amending regulations: 
COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) N:o 530/1999 of 9 March 1999
COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) N:o 1916/2000 of 8 September 2000

Confidentiality - policy

The data protection of data collected for statistical purposes is absolutely guaranteed in accordance with the Statistics Act (280/2004), the Personal Data Act (532/1999) and the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999), as well as the requirements of the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (2016/679). The data materials are protected at all stages of processing with the necessary physical and technical solutions. Statistics Finland has compiled detailed directions and instructions for confidential processing of the data. Employees have access only to the data essential for their duties. The premises where unit-level data are processed are not accessible to outsiders. Members of the personnel have signed a pledge of secrecy upon entering the service. Wilful breaching of data protection is punishable.

Confidentiality - data treatment

For reasons of data protection and reliability, data are not published or distributed in the structure of earnings statistics if: 
the data are based on data of fewer than 30 employees or fewer than three enterprises, or if one enterprise covers 80 per cent of the data observations

Release policy

Statistics Finland’s release calendar lists in advance all the statistical data and publications to be released over the year. Statistical releases can be found under statistics-specific releases. Statistical data are released on the Internet at 8 am, unless otherwise indicated. The calendar is updated on weekdays. Statistics Finland’s release calendar for the coming year is published every year in December.

Data sharing

The structure of earnings statistics are compiled every four statistical years in accordance with the relevant EU Regulations (2014, 2018, 2022, etc.). Unit-level data delivered to Eurostat: The unit-level data contain a sample of the statistics in protected form and include the variables set out in the regulations. 

Accessibility and clarity

The statistical release is published annually on the home page of the statistics. In the first release of the statistical year, four database tables are published and in the second release three additional tables are published. 

Quality assessment

The quality of the structure of earnings statistics is assessed in stages as statistical production progresses.

The coherence of the earnings data with the earnings data of the Tax Administration is periodically monitored. These reviews have also made extensive use of data of the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela) to reconcile monthly wage structure data with the annual-level data of the Tax Administration on the basis of estimated months of employment.
 

Quality assurance

When compiling statistics, Statistics Finland observes the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP) and the Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) based on them. The Code of Practice concerns the independence and accountability of statistical authorities and the quality of processes and data to be published. The principles are in line with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics approved by the United Nations Statistics Division and are supplementary to them. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are also compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice. The principles are also compatible with those of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM).

More information is available on Statistics Finland’s quality management pages.

Every year Statistics Finland conducts statistical auditing that helps to ensure the quality of statistics.

User access

The data are released to all users of the statistics simultaneously on the home page of the statistics. No one has access to the data of the release before the official date of publication.

Statistical experts

Matti Lahdenmäki
Senior Statistician
029 551 3690