Basic data of the statistics
The statistics present the emissions generated by each industry (64 industries) and by households (broken down into heating, transport and other activities). Emissions into air comprise 14 different compounds (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and fluorinated gases (HFC, PFC and SF6)), biomass carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), ammonia and fine particles (PM 10 and PM2.5).
The statistics describe the emissions into air generated in Finland and abroad by economic units located in Finland (enterprises, public actors and households) as divided between industries and households. Emissions into air comprise greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and fluorinated gases HFC, PFC and SF6), biomass carbon dioxide, and the following air pollutants: sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), ammonia and fine particles (PM 10 and PM2.5). The total emissions correspond to the emissions included in Finland’s greenhouse gas inventory to which the emissions of Finnish economic units abroad have been added and from which the emissions of foreign economic units in the Finnish territory have been subtracted.
The statistical population comprises all economic units located in Finland.
Industry/household, at the degree of detail used in the statistics, is the basic unit used in the statistics. The data used in the statistics comprise the data collected for the greenhouse gas inventory and the CLRTAP inventory of the Finnish Environment Institute. National accounts are also used in the calculation of emissions for individual industries.
Unit of measure
One tonne (1,000 kilograms) is used as the unit of measure in the statistics.
The reference period of the statistics is one year. The statistics are published 21 months after the end of the statistical year.
The statistics cover the whole of Finland and the activities of Finnish economic units in countries outside Finland.
The statistics cover all industries and households. They cover the emissions generated by all Finnish economic units in Finland and abroad.
The statistics cover the time series from starting from the year 2008. The data for the most recent year are published 21 months after the end of the statistical year. The data for earlier years are updated as new statistics are published.
Frequency of dissemination
The statistics are published 21 months after the end of the statistical year at the same time each year. In exceptional cases, Statistics Finland may also correct erroneous information at other times by issuing corrections. Revisions of earlier years take place in connection with regular statistical releases.
Ammonia is primarily generated from using fertilisers in agriculture. Ammonia causes eutrophication and acidification.
Biomass CO2 emissions are caused by biomass burning, such as wood, biogas, sewage sludge and renewable fraction of waste. One half of the total amount of biomass CO2 derives from the wood industry and its black liquor burning process and the other half is caused by wood burning to energy.
Biomass-based carbon dioxide emissions are generated from biomass burning. Biodegradation, for example at landfills and in wastewater treatment, also causes biomass-based CO2 emissions but they are not evaluated separately. Biomass includes wood, biogas, sludge from wastewater treatment and biodegradable waste. In Finland, most of the biomass-based CO2 emissions from burning are generated by burning of black liquor in the forest industry. Burning of other wood-based biomass is also a major source. Biomass-based CO2 emissions from burning are not included in energy sector emissions in the greenhouse gas inventory because they are included in carbon stock changes in the land use sector.
A joint measure of greenhouse gas emissions by which to sum up the effect of various greenhouse gas emissions on the acceleration of the greenhouse effect.
Carbon monoxide has an indirect radiative forcing effect by elevating con-centrations of methane and tropospheric ozone. Carbon monoxide is pro-duced from the partial oxidation of carbon-containing compounds. It is widely used in the chemical industry.
F gases, or fluorinated greenhouse gases, are a common term for HFC compounds (hydrofluorocarbons), PFC compounds (perfluorocarbons), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitric trifluoride (NF3). They are strong greenhouse gases (GWP 12-22800), the emissions of which are to be reduced by international climate conventions (e.g. the UNFCCC, the Paris Agreement). F gas emissions are reported in the greenhouse gas inventory. The most significant sources of emissions for these gases are refrigeration and air conditioning equipment.
Carbon dioxide is the most prevalent greenhouse gas, the emissions of which are primarily connected to the use of fossil fuels. Peat is regarded as a fossil fuel in the statistics on emissions into air by industry. Most fossil carbon dioxide emissions are released in connection with the production of electricity and heat.
Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas. CO2 emissions are mostly caused by burning fossil fuels. In emissions into air by industry statistics, peat is included into fossil fuels. A majority of the fossil carbon dioxide emissions are released in heat and power production.
Greenhouse gases reported in the greenhouse gas inventory are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated greenhouse gases or F-gases (HFC compounds (hydrofluorocarbons), PFC compounds (perfluorocarbons), sulphur hexafluoride SF6, and nitrogen trifluoride NF3). Other significant greenhouse gases include water vapour, ozone and the so-called CFC and HCFC compounds reported under the Montreal Protocol. Greenhouse gases cause global warming by preventing the heat radiation from the sun from returning into space.
Carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and other volatile organic compounds than methane (NMVOC) contribute to the greenhouse gas effect by forming ozone (O3) and/or carbon dioxide (CO2) or nitrous oxide (N2O) in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases formed from such compounds in the atmosphere are referred to as indirect greenhouse gases in the greenhouse gas inventory. CO, NOx and NMVOC emissions are restricted under other international agreements, such as the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollutants, and they are not subject to the reduction targets of the Paris Agreement, for example. However, their emissions are also reported in the greenhouse gas inventory and emissions of indirect greenhouse gases are taken into consideration in total emissions.
The industrial classification divides units into industry classes based on their main economic activity. The main economic activity is the one that produces a majority of the unit's value added. The classification used is the Finnish national classification (TOL) derived from the statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE).
Methane is produced in connection with the digestion and decomposition of organic substances, e.g. manure, wastewater sludge or biodegradable waste. In addition, it is generated in livestock enteric fermentation, which is the largest source of methane emissions in the greenhouse gas inventory. In addition to the above, methane is generated in incomplete combustion and evaporates in the processing, transfer and distribution of natural gas and biogas.
Nitrogen dioxide is an indirect greenhouse gas that forms ground level ozone. It also causes acid rain and eutrophication of soil and water. Nitrogen dioxide is produced during combustion, especially when burning takes place at high temperatures. It is also released during certain industrial processes.
Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) is a substance causing ozone depletion and it is a significant greenhouse gas. Its contribution to the greenhouse gas effect per unit of mass is approximately 300-fold that of carbon dioxide. Agriculture is the biggest source of nitrous oxide emissions.
Particulate matter sized under 2.5 and 10 micrometer per diameter. These tiny particles are released in burning processes, traffic and some industrial processes. Particulate matter have adverse health effects.
The statistics on emissions into air by industry, which are accordant with the regulation on environmental accounting, also contain Finnish citizens' emissions from land, water and air transport and from Finnish fishing vessels operating abroad. The emissions by foreign citizens from land, water and air transport on Finnish territory are subtracted from the emissions into air by industry.
This resident principle approach is different from that used in the greenhouse gas inventory, which only contains the emissions generated in the territory of Finland regardless of the nationality of the individual causing the emission (national territory principle). The difference between the greenhouse gas inventory and the statistics on emissions into air by industry is recorded in the bridging table for each emission component.
The bridging table contains data on Finnish citizens' emissions from land, water and air transport and from Finnish fishing vessels operating abroad, and on emissions by foreign citizens from land, water and air transport in Finland.
Sulphur dioxide is produced from the burning of fossil fuels and the smelting of mineral ores that contain sulphur. When sulphur dioxide combines with water, it forms sulphuric acid and acid rain. Acid rain can cause deforestation, acidify waterways and corrode building materials.
NMVOC is a generic name for organic compounds that easily vaporise in the atmosphere. Volatile organic compounds are released, for instance, in burning processes and when using solvents. Ozone is formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and NMVOCs react in the presence of sunlight.
NMVOC is a generic name for volatile organic compounds that easily vaporise in the atmosphere, excluding methane. Volatile organic compounds are released, for instance, in burning processes and when using solvents. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and NMVOCs react in the presence of sunlight to produce ozone.
Accuracy, reliability and timeliness
As the statistics are mainly derived from other statistics, the quality of the source statistics is crucial
for the reliability of the statistics. Because there are different types of source statistics, there are also various uncertainty factors. In some cases, the methods to calculate the emissions in the source data may be clarified or updated. A large amount of monetary data are used in the classification of emissions by industry, and this data may not always fully correspond to the physical amounts.
The statistical data are published 21 months after the end of the statistical year.
The data are published 21 months after the end of the statistical year, which is in accordance with the timetable on reporting data to the Eurostat specified in the regulation.
Comparability - geographical
The statistics are based on EU Regulation on European environmental economic accounts (No 691/2011, No 538/2014) and its implementing regulation (No 2174/2015). Thus, in terms of data and structure, the statistics are consistent with the statistics published in other EU countries. The definitions in the regulation are also in accordance with the System of Environmental Economic Accounting (SEEA) specified by the UN, which means that most of the statistics are also comparable with SEEA-compatible statistics on emissions into air by industry produced outside the EU.
Comparability - over time
The statistics are comparable for the whole length of the time series, starting from 2008. The data in older publications may have been revised in more recent releases and for this reason, comparable data on all years can be found in the latest releases.
Coherence - cross domain
The figures for greenhouse gases are comparable with the data published in the greenhouse gas inventory and for other emissions, with the CLRTAP inventory published by the Finnish Environment Institute. However, when comparisons with the inventories are made, it should be remembered that they are in accordance with the principle of territoriality under which all emissions generated within Finnish borders are reported. At the same time, in the statistics on emissions into air by industry, the emissions generated by Finnish economic units operating outside Finland are reported, whereas the emissions generated by foreign economic units in Finland are outside the scope of the statistics. As a result, the data in the statistics on emissions into air by industry can also be combined and compared with the national accounts. In other words, the economic units that comprise Finland’s GDP are included in the statistics on emissions into air by industry.
Coherence - internal
The figures for greenhouse gases are comparable with the data published in the greenhouse gas inventory and for other emissions, with the CLRTAP inventory published by the Finnish Environment Institute. However, when comparisons with the inventories are made, it should be remembered that they are in accordance with the principle of territoriality under which all emissions generated within Finnish borders are reported. At the same time, in the statistics on emissions into air by industry, the emissions generated by Finnish economic units operating outside Finland are reported, whereas the emissions generated by foreign economic units in Finland are outside the scope of the statistics.
Source data and data collections
The statistics are macro statistics and most of the data contained in them have been collected from other statistics. No data are separately collected and no sample surveys are produced for the statistics. The greenhouse gas inventory calculated at Statistics Finland and the CLRTAP inventory produced by the Finnish Environment Institute are the most important data sources for the statistics (CLRTAP = Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). The tables of supply and use contained in the national accounts are also used in the calculation of emissions by industry. Statistics of Finnish Customs, and statistics on international trade in services and tourism statistics are used in the calculation of the emissions of economic units operating outside Finland.
No separate data collection has been carried out for the purpose of the statistics. The statistics are macro statistics and most of the data contained in them have been collected from other statistics.
Frequency of data collection
The data used in the statistics are based on figures collected each year.
The greenhouse gas inventory and the CLRTAP inventory comprise the data contained in the statistics. When emission data for individual industries are calculated, these data and more detailed source data on them are combined with national accounts data.
The statistics are macro statistics and most of the data contained in them have been collected from other statistics. For this reason, the source data are not separately validated. The data published in the statistics are compared with the data published in the greenhouse gas inventory, energy statistics and the national accounts and their accuracy and comparability are checked.
Principles and outlines
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Legal acts and other agreements
The compilation of statistics is guided by the Statistics Act. The Statistics Act contains provisions on collection of data, processing of data and the obligation to provide data. Besides the Statistics Act, the Data Protection Act and the Act on the Openness of Government Activities are applied to processing of data when producing statistics.
Statistics Finland compiles statistics in line with the EU’s regulations applicable to statistics, which steer the statistical agencies of all EU Member States.
Further information: Statistical legislatio
Confidentiality - policy
The data protection of data collected for statistical purposes is guaranteed in accordance with the requirements of the Statistics Act (280/2004), the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999), the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and the Data Protection Act (1050/2018). The data materials are protected at all stages of processing with the necessary physical and technical solutions. Statistics Finland has compiled detailed directions and instructions for confidential processing of the data. Employees have access only to the data essential for their duties. The premises where unit-level data are processed are not accessible to outsiders. Members of the personnel have signed a pledge of secrecy upon entering the service. Violation of data protection is punishable.
Further information: Data protection | Statistics Finland (stat.fi
Confidentiality - data treatment
The data materials are protected at all stages of processing with the necessary physical and technical solutions. The unit-specific data of the calculation data must be kept confidential. Data are only handled by persons who need the data in their work. The use of data is restricted by usage rights. The statistics are formed by processing a large number of different statistics and other data sources. The aggregation of data in the process, the compilation time evaluation related to data quality, detailed prioritisation of sources and measures related to total level balancing produce an end result that does not enable identification of individual data producers. If, as a result of the required degree of detail, data from which individual operators can be identified is included in the material, the data in question must be marked as confidential and will not be published.
Statistics Finland publishes new statistical data at 8 am on weekdays in its web service. The release times of statistics are given in advance in the release calendar available in the web service. The data are public after they have been updated in the web service.
Further information: Publication principles for statistics at Statistics Finlan
The statistics are published on the Statistics Finland website approximately 21 months after the end of the statistical year. As required under EU Regulation on European environmental economic accounts (No 691/2011, 538/2014), the data are transmitted to Eurostat 21 months after the end of the statistical year. Eurostat publishes the data on its own website together with the data on other EU countries a few months after the transmission of the data.
Accessibility and clarity
Statistical data are published as database tables in the StatFin database. The database is the primary publishing site of data, and new data are updated first there. When releasing statistical data, existing database tables can be updated with new data or completely new database tables can be published.
In addition to statistical data published in the StatFin database, a release on the key data is usually published in the web service. If the release contains data concerning several reference periods (e.g. monthly and annual data), a review bringing together these data is published in the web service. Database tables updated at the time of publication are listed both in the release and in the review. In some cases, statistical data can also be published as mere database releases in the StatFin database. No release or review is published in connection with these database releases.
Releases and database tables are published in three languages, in Finnish, Swedish and English. The language versions of releases may have more limited content than in Finnish.
Information about changes in the publication schedules of releases and database tables and about corrections are given as change releases in the web service.
Data revision - policy
Revisions – i.e. improvements in the accuracy of statistical data already published – are a normal feature of statistical production and result in improved quality of statistics. The principle is that statistical data are based on the best available data and information concerning the statistical phenomenon. On the other hand, the revisions are communicated as transparently as possible in advance. Advance communication ensures that the users can prepare for the data revisions.
The reason why data in statistical releases become revised is often caused by the data becoming supplemented. Then the new, revised statistical figure is based on a wider information basis and describes the phenomenon more accurately than before.
Revisions of statistical data may also be caused by the calculation method used, such as annual benchmarking or updating of weight structures. Changes of base years and used classifications may also cause revisions to data.
Official Statistics of Finland (OSF) are a comprehensive collection of statistics describing the development and state of society. They comprise nearly 300 sets of statistics on 26 different topics. The producers of Official Statistics of Finland have approved a common quality assurance in which they commit to common quality criteria and quality assurance measures. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice. The good practices followed in the statistics are presented in Statistics Finland’s Quality Guidelines for Official Statistics handbook.
The OSF quality criteria and recommendation on quality description
Quality management requires comprehensive guidance of activities. The quality management framework of the field of statistics is the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP). The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice.
Further information: Quality management | Statistics Finland (stat.fi)
Data are released to all users at the same time. Statistical data may only be handled at Statistics Finland and information on them may be given before release only by persons involved in the production of the statistics concerned or who need the data of the statistics concerned in their own work before the data are published.
Further information: Publication principles for statistics