3. Cost structure of course training unchanged

Although the rate of participation in training and especially the number of training days have fallen from 1999, the structure of training costs has remained quite unchanged. The proportion of payments to external training providers of the total costs of training has grown slightly but the relative shares of the different cost factors are otherwise unchanged. The share of the labour costs of those participating in training of the costs of course training was 47 per cent in 1999 and remained the same in 2005.

Figure 5. Costs of course training by cost factor in 1999 and 2005 1)

Figure 5. Costs of course training by cost factor in 1999 and 2005 1)

1) The sum of net costs is 100% when fees and contributions are added to, and receipts are deducted from the five cost items in the figure

As in 1999, employers’ contributions to training funds covered 1.4 per cent of the total costs. The contributions refer to enterprises’ membership fees that cover training services, and separate contributions to regional, industry-specific and national training funds. By contrast, the share of received grants of the total costs of training had fallen from 3.9 per cent to 0.9 per cent. The grants refer to regional or industry-specific grants or grants from the central government or the EU for enterprises’ training activities. National and EU grants were not separately distinguished in the questions but it can be assumed that especially the share of EU grants had diminished clearly from Finland’s initial years of EU membership.

Share of training costs of labour costs has fallen

As the share of participants in training and the number of training days have fallen, so have also the costs incurred by enterprises from the training diminished clearly from 1999. In 2005, enterprises’ training costs accounted for 1.5 per cent of their labour costs whereas in 1999 the respective figure was 2.4 per cent.

Examined by industry, the share of training costs of labour costs ranged from 0.9 per cent in construction, and hotels and restaurants, to 2.9 per cent in financing and insurance. In financing and insurance the biggest cost factor was expensive externally organised training: fees and charges to the organisers of training formed more than one-half of this industry’s training costs whereas in hotel and restaurant activities he respective share was only 31 per cent. The difference between the manufacturing and the services sectors in personnel training had clearly evened out from 1999 as also had other differences between various industries in general.

Figure 6. Share of training costs of labour costs by industry and sector in 2005

Figure 6. Share of training costs of labour costs by industry and sector in 2005

Although relative to labour costs large enterprises were more active trainers than small enterprises, differences by enterprise size category have clearly narrowed from 1999. If enterprises’ units costs per one course training hour are examined the difference disappears in practice because large enterprises are more able to utilise their own, inexpensive internal course training services.

The share of training costs of labour costs has fallen slightly in most EU Countries. In 1999, the average for the old EU Countries (EU15) was 2.0 per cent and like the rest of the Nordic Countries Finland located towards the top of the table. In 2005, the average for the EU15 was 1.6 per cent and Finland’s figure was not far from the EU average.

Figure 7. Share of training costs of labour costs in EU countries and Norway in 2005

 Figure 7. Share of training costs of labour costs in EU countries and Norway in 2005

The survey covered the costs of course training only. Direct and indirect costs of other forms of training (See Chapter 7) were not inquired about. Due to the nature of such training it is difficult for enterprises to monitor their volume and especially their costs, which also makes their measurement challenging.


Source: CVTS, Continuing vocational training survey, Statistics Finland

Inquiries: Hannu Virtanen 09–1734 2514, Tarja Seppänen 09–1734 3220

Director in charge: Riitta Harala


Updated 8.5.2009

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): CVTS, Continuing vocational training [e-publication].
ISSN=1798-0003. Participation in course-format training 2005, 3. Cost structure of course training unchanged . Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 17.10.2019].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/cvts/2005/02/cvts_2005_02_2009-05-08_kat_003_en.html