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Concepts and definitions

Consumption expenditure of educational institutions

Consumption expenditure of educational institutions is comprised of the consumption expenditure of comprehensive education, upper secondary general education, vocational education, university of applied sciences education, and university education and research.

In respect of educational institutions within the state contribution system, consumption expenditure comprises gross operating expenditure and so-called minor projects as reported in their book-keeping in accordance with legislation on the state contribution system. In vocational education and university of applied sciences education prior 2015 consumption expenditure excludes minor projects. The share of minor projects of the consumption expenditure of vocational education and university of applied sciences education prior 2015 has been partly estimated in time series data. Investment expenditure is not included in consumption expenditure. Consumption expenditure per student has been obtained by dividing the expenditure for an accounting year for each sector of education by the annual mean of number of students during the autumn term. In 1995-2001, calculatory amounts of employer's pension contributions for the teaching personnel of municipalities have been added to the consumption expenditure of comprehensive schools and upper secondary general schools.

Expenditure of comprehensive schools, comprehensive school level special schools and teacher training schools, and other schools comparable to comprehensive schools has been counted as consumption expenditure of comprehensive education. Expenditure of hospital, disabled and state approved schools is included in the figures. Capital costs on internal rents are not included in the expenditure. Since 1999, the expenditure has also included comprehensive school level education provided by folk high schools. Before August 2000, expenditure of preprimary education provided by comprehensive schools is included the expenditure of comprehensive school education. Subject pupils in comprehensive school education are not included in the number of students in calculations of expenditure per pupil for the annual and time series data in the data publications since 2020. In the data published in earlier years subject pupils were included in the number of students in calculations of expenditure per pupil.

Expenditure of upper secondary general school education includes the expenditure of upper secondary general schools, teacher training schools and other educational institutions providing upper secondary general education. Since 1999, the expenditure has also included upper secondary general education provided by folk high schools. Capital costs on internal rents are not included in the expenditure. Subject pupils in upper secondary general school education are not included in the number of students in calculations of expenditure per pupil for the annual and time series data in the data publications since 2020. In the data published in earlier years subject pupils were included in the number of students in calculations of expenditure per pupil.

Expenditure of vocational education includes the expenditure of initial vocational education leading to a qualification of vocational education institutions, including music schools and colleges, sports education centres, folk high schools and adult education centres and government transfer financed curriculum-based further vocational education. In time series data, the expenditure of initial vocational education of folk high schools and adult education centres is included in the expenditure of vocational education since 1999. The expenditure of specialised vocational education institutions is included in the figures for vocational education. Government transfer financed curriculum-based further vocational education is included from 2001 onwards. Government transfer financed curriculum-based further vocational education is included in the data publications since 2015 in the annual and time series data. The expenditure of apprenticeship training is included in the expenditure of vocational education. The expenditure of apprenticeship training includes expenditure of vocational basic and further education organised as apprenticeship training, inclusive of expenditure of the apprenticeship training subsidised by the European Social Fund (ESF). Apprenticeship training is included in vocational education in the data publications since 2018 in the annual and time series data. The data do not include the expenditure of supplementary training purchased by regional councils and charged service activities.

The expenditure of university of applied sciences and vocational educational institutions on the Åland Islands and in the military field is not included in the expenditure of vocational education.

University of applied sciences education includes the expenditure of university of applied sciences. The expenditure of university of applied sciences education on the Åland Islands is not included in the figures. Due to changes caused by the amended Universities of Applied Sciences Act and data collection changes, the data from 2015 onwards are not fully comparable with those on earlier years. The data prior 2015 are based on the data reported in accordance with legislation on the state contribution system. As of 2015, the data are based on the data collected by the Ministry of Education and Culture. The expenditure of Police University College is included in the university of applied sciences expenditure from 2015 onwards. Prior 2015 the expenditure of Police University College is partly included in the expenditure of vocational education. New students registered as absent are not included in the numbers of students used for calculating expenditure per students for university of applied sciences education.

University education and research comprises the expenditure of universities. Consumption expenditure refers to budget funded operating expenditure as entered in the financial statements of the state, inclusive of expenditure arising from the construction and acquisition of buildings. Additionally, the consumption expenditure of university education and research includes external research funding of universities. The expenditure of universities includes the rents of Senate Properties from 1995 onwards (for only part of the financial year 1995). Due to changes caused by the amended Universities Act, the data on 2010 are not fully comparable with those on earlier years. The figures for 2010 exclude transferable appropriations for universities' operating expenditure and for universities' joint expenditure. As of 2010, the data include expenditure under budget sub-item 29.40.50 for the running of government-funded universities. The figures exclude the expenditure of teacher training schools and the National Library, as well as VAT compensations to universities.

Consumption expenditure of the educational school system

The consumption expenditure of the educational school system comprises consumption expenditure of educational institutions (see separate definition), as well as consumption expenditure of pre-primary education, apprenticeship training, other education and student financial aid.

In respect of educational institutions within the state contribution system, consumption expenditure comprises gross operating expenditure and so-called minor projects as reported in their book-keeping in accordance with legislation on the state contribution system. In vocational education and university of applied sciences education prior 2015 consumption expenditure excludes minor projects. The share of minor projects of the consumption expenditure of vocational education and university of applied sciences education prior 2015 has been partly estimated in time series data. Investment expenditure is not included in consumption expenditure. Consumption expenditure per student has been obtained by dividing the expenditure for an accounting year for each sector of education by the annual mean of number of students during the autumn term.

From August 2000 onwards, expenditure of pre-primary education includes free pre-primary education provided in day care centres and comprehensive schools for 6-year-old children. Expenditure of hospital schools and disabled education are included in the figures. From August 2004 onwards, costs of school transport are included in the expenditure of pre-primary education.

The expenditure of apprenticeship training includes expenditure of vocational basic and further education organised as apprenticeship training, inclusive of expenditure of the apprenticeship training subsidised by the European Social Fund (ESF).

The consumption expenditure of other education comprises the expenditure of adult education centres, folk high schools, music schools and colleges and sports education centres on education other than that leading to a qualification. From 1999, the expenditure of folk high schools and adult education centres on education leading to a qualification has been included in the figures for comprehensive school education, upper secondary general school education, vocational education and university of applied sciences education. The expenditure of vocational adult education centres and study circle centres is not included in the figures for the group of other education.

Administrative expenditure was included in consumption expenditure of the educational school system until the publication of the 2014 data but since the publication of the 2015 data administrative expenditure is not included in the annual or time series data. Administrative expenditure comprised the operating expenditure of the administration of the Ministry of Education, the Board of Education and the educational and cultural services of municipalities and joint municipal boards. Educational institutions' own administrative expenditure is included in their operating expenditure.

Student financial aid is comprised of study grant, housing supplement, study grant for mature students, interest subsidy and interest allowance for student loans, meal subsidies and school transportation subsidy.

Education

An organised activity, the aim of which is to produce competence based on teaching.

Comment:

Education can be divided into education and training leading to a qualification or degree and non-qualification studies.

Educational system

The Finnish educational system is comprised of the following:

Pre-primary education is provided in Finland to 6-year-old children, usually at children's day care homes. Some 6-year-old children receive pre-primary education in comprehensive schools. Attendance of pre-primary education has been compulsory since 2015.

Comprehensive school education is general knowledge education provided for entire age cohorts. All children permanently resident in Finland must attend compulsory education. Compulsory education starts in the year of the child's seventh birthday.

Compulsory education finishes when the syllabus of comprehensives school education has been completed (9-year comprehensive school), or 10 years from the start of compulsory education. In exceptional cases compulsory education may start already at the age of six and last 11 years due to a disability or illness. A student who has received a leaving certificate from comprehensive school in the same year or in the year before it may continue to attend optional additional education (10th grade).

Post-comprehensive school education, or upper secondary general education and vocational education represent secondary level of education. Upper secondary general school education is education leading to a matriculation examination. Its scope is three years and it gives general eligibility to further education. Vocational education can be either educational institution-based or apprenticeship training. In apprenticeship training, most of the studying is comprised of learning through practical work tasks at a workplace. The qualifications are initial vocational qualifications attained in three years, which also give general eligibility to further polytechnic or university studies.

Further and specialist vocational qualifications represent further vocational education. They, as well as initial vocational qualifications can be attained in a skills examination that can be taken irrespective of the way of acquisition of professional skills, and in which skills can be proven on the basis of preparatory education for a skills examination or work experience.

Attainment of university of applied sciences degrees takes 3.5 to 4.5 years and higher university of applied sciences degrees requiring work practice 1-1.5 years. Attainment of lower university degrees takes three years while higher university degrees take two years longer. Attainers of higher level university degrees may continue their studies to licentiate and doctorate level degrees.

Level of education

Category into which programmes leading to a qualification or degree are divided on the basis of the requirement level.

Comment:

Selection to education on a particular level of education often requires completion of a lower level of education.

The level of education is measured on the basis of both the overall duration or target time of the education and the requirement level.

Levels of education: early childhood education and care and pre-primary education (duration varies), primary education (6 years), lower secondary education (3 years, in total 9 years from the beginning of comprehensive education), upper secondary education (3 years, in total 12 years from the beginning of comprehensive education), post-secondary non-tertiary education (1-2 years, in total 13-14 years from the beginning of comprehensive education), lowest tertiary education (2-3 years, in total 14-15 years from the beginning of comprehensive education), bachelor's or equivalent level (3-4 years, in total 15-16 years from the beginning of comprehensive education), master's or equivalent level (5-6 years, in total 17-18 years from the beginning of comprehensive education) and second stage of tertiary education (2-4 years, in total 19-22 years from the beginning of comprehensive education).

The level of education indicator cannot be calculated directly on the basis of the duration presented in this concept.

Sector of education

Comprehensive education, general upper secondary education, vocational education, university of applied sciences education, university education.

University education

Tertiary education provided by universities.

Comment:

The objective of the education is a bachelor’s or master’s degree or a scientific postgraduate degree, which are licentiate's and doctoral degrees.

Education not leading to a qualification or degree can also be completed.

Vocational education and training

Education and training completed after the comprehensive education syllabus, aimed at producing vocational competence.

Comment:

Initial, further and specialist vocational qualifications can be obtained in vocational education and training.

In addition to completing a qualification, parts of a qualification can also be completed in vocational education and training.

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Educational finances [e-publication].
ISSN=1799-0963. Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 19.8.2022].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/kotal/kas_en.html