New data from these statistics will be published on the home page of the Statistics on offences and coercive measures.

Concepts and definitions


Theft, aggravated theft or petty theft committed by means of unlawful intrusion.

Coercive measure

Coercive measures are often divided into tree groups: those against a person, those against property and coercive measures ordered by a court of justice. Statistics on coercive measures classify these measures so that coercive measures against a person are listed first and coercive measures against property are listed after them. Coercive measures ordered by a court of justice are indicated in the statistics by the letter O after the acronym of the coercive measure. Wiretapping, remote surveillance and technical monitoring (chapter 5a of the Coercive Measures Act 2003/646) are not included in these statistics.

Some of the cases compiled into statistics as coercive measures, such as restraining orders and business prohibitions are of the warrant-type (warrant for apprehension), which lead into actions, should the order be violated.

Coercive measures are provided for in the Coercive Measures Act (1987/450). In addition, apprehension is provided for in the Police Act (so called apprehension based on the Police Act). Coercive measures against foreign nationals in special circumstances (e.g. formalities in connection with entry into the country or refugee status) are provided for in the Aliens Act.

The general grounds according to law for using a coercive measure (one or more) are recorded in the decision to use a coercive measure.

Coercive measures against a person's freedom may also rest on special grounds (one or more). One typical instance of special grounds is that there is reason to fear that the person suspected of being guilty takes flight.

Custody period

The custody period is the period of time a person is detained, arrested or imprisoned on the basis of a coercive measure. The days of detention or arrest are counted in hours and the days of imprisonment on the basis of dates.

Hidden crime

An offence not reported to the police and hence not registered as crime.

Offence known to the police

A matter entered into the police information system as an offence.

Parking fine

A fine imposed for breaking prohibitions and limitations on the stopping and parking of vehicles and provisions on the use of a parking disc. Such a fine can also be imposed on grounds of unnecessary idling of motor vehicles.

These fines are imposed by the police or, if the municipality is responsible for supervision, also by a municipal parking inspector or his/her assistant. A parking offence for which a parking fine or a caution has been imposed is not registered as an offence.

Penal order

A penal order refers to a decision by which the public prosecutor imposes a fine and forfeiture on the basis of an order for a fine or punishment.

An order for a fine or punishment is issued by a police officer. An order for a fine refers to an order given to the suspect by which a fine and forfeiture are demanded of him or her for the violation. An order for punishment refers to a fine or summary penal fee served to the suspect and an order concerning a forfeiture in a situation where the suspect is not willing to process the matter in proceedings according to the Act on the imposition of a fine and summary penal fee (754/2010).

A police officer can also issue a fine. A fine refers to a pecuniary penalty imposed by a police officer. A fine can be a pecuniary penalty or a forfeiture of at most 20 day fines and it can be imposed for infractions of the acts and regulations listed in Chapter 1, Section 3, Sub-paragraphs 1 to 13 of the Act on the imposition of a fine and summary penal fee (754/2010).

A fine can be ordered for infractions for which not a more severe penalty is provided than a fine or imprisonment for at most six months. In addition to a fine, a forfeiture of EUR 1,000 can be ordered.

Processing the matter in the procedure according to the imposition of a fine and summary penal fee (754/2010) requires the assent of the injured party and the meaning of the assent has to be explained to the injured party when requesting the assent.

Percentage of offences solved

This figure indicates how many per cent of all offences which become known during a statistical year consist of offences solved. Therefore the figure may be higher than 100.

Solved offence

An offence known to the police is regarded as solved when the circumstances in which the offence was committed, the parties involved as well as other factors necessary for making the decision on bringing charges and for the trial have been clarified. The decision is made by the officer in charge of the pre-trial investigation.

Summary penal fee

A summary penal fee or petty fine is a pecuniary penalty of a fixed amount and less severe than a fine. The summary penal fee may have a size of EUR 20, 40, 70, 100, 120, 140, 170 or 200 and since 1.9.2015 size of EUR 20, 40, 70, 100, 120, 140, 170 or 200. If the person commits two or more infractions at the same time, the summary penal fee is imposed for the offence for which the summary penal fee provided is the highest. A joint punishment must not be passed for a summary penal fee and a fine or a sentence of imprisonment for a fixed period. An unpaid summary penal fee must not be converted into imprisonment.

A summary penal fee is imposed by a police officer or another official carrying out a statutory supervision function. Those sentenced to a summary penal fee may submit the matter to the district court. The imposition of a summary penal fee is decreed in the Act on the imposition of a fine and summary penal fee (754/2010).

The scope of the summary penal fee is decreed in Chapter 2, Sections 8 to 11 of the Criminal Code and in the Act on summary penal fee infractions (756/2010) and Government Decree of the summary penal fee offences (1081/2015).

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Offences known to the police [e-publication].
ISSN=2242-7953. Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 17.10.2021].
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