16.8.2022 valid documentation

Basic data of the statistics

Data description

The statistics on greenhouse gases comprise data on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases in Finland. The greenhouse gas inventory data is used to monitor national emission reduction efforts and Finland’s international reduction commitments. Instant preliminary, preliminary and final data are published annually.

Statistical population

The greenhouse gases statistics cover anthropogenic GHG emissions and sinks within the borders of Finland.
 
 

Statistical unit

The statistics cover seven actual greenhouse gases (in addition, more than one gas is included in the groups of HFC and PFC compounds):
  • carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • methane (CH4)
  • nitrous oxide (N2O)
  • HFCs
  • PFCs
  • sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
  • nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).
In addition, the following emissions are reported: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). 

Emissions are reported for the following sectors:
  • Energy: energy use of fuels, and evaporative and fugitive emissions related to the production, distribution and consumption of fuels.
  • Industrial processes and product use: emissions from industrial processes, emissions from the use of raw materials and fuels used as raw materials, emissions from the use of F-gases, and emissions from the use of nitrous oxide for industrial and medical applications.
  • Agriculture:CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management, soil N2O emissions, N2O emissions of field burning of agricultural residues, and CO2 emissions from liming and urea application.
  • Land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF): carbon stock changes (emissions and changes) for the following land-use categories: forest land, cropland, grassland, wetlands, settlements and other land. Other items reported include carbon stock changes for wood products, emissions from wildfires and forest fires, N2O emissions from land converted to cropland, forest fertilisation, drained forest land and peat extraction areas, and CH4 emissions from drained forest land and peat extraction areas.
  • Waste: emissions from landfilling, compost and digestion and sewage treatment.
  • Indirect CO2 emissions from NMVOC and CH4 emissions are also reported for industrial processes and the energy sector.
The data of the greenhouse gas statistics are obtained from multiple sources: registers, modelling, surveys, sample-based monitoring and data collections for energy statistics.
 

Unit of measure

The unit of measure used in the statistics is CO2 equivalent (CO2 equivalent). The calculation of GHG emissions and sinks is based on CO2, methane, nitrous oxide and F-gases. The warming potential of different greenhouse gases is translated into a common measure, i.e. CO2 equivalent, using Global Warming Potential (GWP) factors. The GWP assigned to CO2 is 1, and the GWP factors for other greenhouse gases are determined by comparing the radiative forcing of one kilogramme of the GHG concerned (W/m2) with the corresponding radiative forcing of CO2. The greenhouse gas inventory data are produced in accordance with the new EU governance regulation, and global warming potential (GWP) factors according to the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) are adopted in EU reporting from 2023 on and in Paris agreement from 2024 on.

Table 1. GWP factors according to the IPCC Assessment Reports (SAR, AR4 and AR5)
  SAR (1996)1 AR 4 (2007)2 AR 5 (2014)3
CO2 1 1 1
CH4. 21 25 28
N2O 310 298 265
SF6 23 900 22 800 23 500
NF3 - 17 200 16 100
HFCs and PFCs4 140–11 700 12–17 340 4–12 400
1 In accordance with the inventory reporting guidelines, up to the 2014 inventory submission.
2 In accordance with the inventory reporting guidelines, starting from the 2015 inventory submission.
3 In accordance with the inventory reporting guidelines, starting from the 2023 inventory submission.
4 Mandatory reporting items.

Base period

The time series of the statistics start from 1990. The statistics do not contain indices.

Reference period

The reference period is a year. The first release of the annual data (instant preliminary data) is produced using simplified methods and is published at around t+5 months. The preliminary data are published with a delay of around t+12 months, and the final data are published with a delay of t+15 months.
 

Reference area

In accordance with international agreements, the inventory is carried out at a national level.

Sector coverage

The statistics on greenhouse gases (GHG) cover anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals within the borders of Finland.

Time coverage

The time series of the statistics start in 1990, which is the base year under the UNFCCC. The time series may be updated due to a revision of the calculation methods or reference data up to 1990, because the inventory process is continuously improving following recommendations from international inventory reviews and the development of the scientific basis for emission calculation methods. Changes are made for the entire timeseries in order to ensure time series consistency. Especially in the LULUCF sector, the use of new data in the calculation revises the annual sums of removals and emissions (net sink) backwards in the time series, especially for the latest years, because typically not all the necessary data were available when the data for each year were first published.
 

Frequency of dissemination

The statistics are published annually.

Concepts

Biomass-based carbon dioxide (CO2-bio)

Biomass-based carbon dioxide emissions are generated from biomass burning. Biodegradation, for example at landfills and in wastewater treatment, also causes biomass-based CO2 emissions but they are not evaluated separately. Biomass includes wood, biogas, sludge from wastewater treatment and biodegradable waste. In Finland, most of the biomass-based CO2 emissions from burning are generated by burning of black liquor in the forest industry. Burning of other wood-based biomass is also a major source. Biomass-based CO2 emissions from burning are not included in energy sector emissions in the greenhouse gas inventory because they are included in carbon stock changes in the land use sector.

CRF tables

The Common Reporting Format tables used in the national greenhouse gas inventory and accepted by the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC.

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most significant greenhouse gas produced by humankind. Most carbon dioxide produced by humankind originates from the use of fossil fuels (including oil, coal and natural gas). Another important source of emissions is the destruction of tropical forests and other land-use changes.

Carbon dioxide equivalent

A joint measure of greenhouse gas emissions by which to sum up the effect of various greenhouse gas emissions on the acceleration of the greenhouse effect.

Emission factor

The quantity of a selected emission relative to a specified quantity, often this quantity is a production input, e.g. carbon dioxide equivalent tonne per fuel used.

Emission intensity

Total quantity of a selected emission, expressed as a proportion of a specified quantity. E.g. carbon dioxide equivalent tonnes per value added.

F gases

F gases, or fluorinated greenhouse gases, are a common term for HFC compounds (hydrofluorocarbons), PFC compounds (perfluorocarbons), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitric trifluoride (NF3). They are strong greenhouse gases (GWP 12-22800), the emissions of which are to be reduced by international climate conventions (e.g. the UNFCCC, the Paris Agreement). F gas emissions are reported in the greenhouse gas inventory. The most significant sources of emissions for these gases are refrigeration and air conditioning equipment.

GWP factors

GWP (Global Warming Potential) factors used in commensurating different greenhouse gases. The greenhouse gas inventory uses the factors of the IPCC Assessment Reports decided under the UNFCCC and the EU at a given time. Starting from the inventory year 2021, the factors of the Fifth IPCC Assessment Report (AR5) are used.

Greenhouse gas

Greenhouse gases reported in the greenhouse gas inventory are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated greenhouse gases or F-gases (HFC compounds (hydrofluorocarbons), PFC compounds (perfluorocarbons), sulphur hexafluoride SF6, and nitrogen trifluoride NF3). Other significant greenhouse gases include water vapour, ozone and the so-called CFC and HCFC compounds reported under the Montreal Protocol. Greenhouse gases cause global warming by preventing the heat radiation from the sun from returning into space.

Greenhouse gas inventory

The greenhouse gas inventory is an annual calculation of the greenhouse gas emissions and removals generated in each country's territory in accordance with the IPCC methodological guidelines and the requirements of international climate conventions, and the results of which are gathered into common Reporting Format Tables and the National Inventory Report. The inventory is submitted annually to the European Commission. In addition, it is delivered in alternate years either as an independent entity or in connection with the biennial report of the Paris Agreement, compiled every two years, to the UNFCCC Secretariat.

Greenhouse gas inventory reporting sector

In the greenhouse gas inventory, emissions are reported for the following sectors:

Energy:

energy use of fuels, and evaporative and fugitive emissions related to the production, distribution and consumption of fuels.

Industrial processes and product use:

emissions released in industrial processes, emissions from the use of raw materials and fuels in raw materials use, emissions from the use of F-gases, and emissions from the use of nitrous oxide in industrial and medical applications.

Agriculture:

CH4 emissions from livestock enteric fermentation, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management, N2O emissions from agricultural soils, N2O emissions from field burning of agricultural residues, and CO2 emissions from liming and urea application

Land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF):

CO2 emissions and sinks from the land use categories: forest land, cropland, grassland, wetlands, settlements and other land. Other items reported include emissions from wood products, wildfires and controlled burning, N2O emissions from land converted to cropland, forest fertilisation, drained forest land and peat extraction areas, and CH4 emissions from drained forest land and peat extraction areas.

Waste:

landfills, composting and wastewater treatment

Indirect CO2 emissions from NMVOC and CH4 emissions are also reported for industrial processes and the energy sector.

IPCC

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) prepares scientific assessment reports on the progress of climate change, its mitigation and adaptation to it for national and international decision-making. In addition, the IPCC develops methodological guidelines for assessing national greenhouse gas emissions and removals. The purpose of the work of the IPCC is to produce necessary and relevant information for decision-making but not to guide decision-making.

In Finland, the IPCC work is carried out by an IPCC working group appointed by the Ministry of the Environment, which brings together researchers in the field and representatives of various ministries.

Indirect greenhouse gases

Carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and other volatile organic compounds than methane (NMVOC) contribute to the greenhouse gas effect by forming ozone (O3) and/or carbon dioxide (CO2) or nitrous oxide (N2O) in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases formed from such compounds in the atmosphere are referred to as indirect greenhouse gases in the greenhouse gas inventory. CO, NOx and NMVOC emissions are restricted under other international agreements, such as the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollutants, and they are not subject to the reduction targets of the Paris Agreement, for example. However, their emissions are also reported in the greenhouse gas inventory and emissions of indirect greenhouse gases are taken into consideration in total emissions.

Key category

The emission category to be prioritised in the national greenhouse gas inventory because it has a significant effect on the country's total greenhouse gas emissions, the volume and/or trend of emissions/removals.

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol under the UNFCCC is the first legally binding convention with which emissions have been reduced internationally. The Protocol obligated the industrialised countries mentioned in its Annex to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with their country-specific commitments in the Annex (the first commitment period of 2008 to 2012 under the Kyoto Protocol). Emission reduction commitments were updated for the second commitment period (2013 to 2020).

LULUCF

Land use, land-use change and forestry sector in the national greenhouse gas inventory.

Land use category

The land use category is determined by the primary (principal) or economically most significant mode of land use prevailing above ground level. Land areas are classified by their use and according to what happens on ground level either naturally or as a result of human activity. A certain area can belong to only one land use category. Use of an area refers to its actual use for some purpose, not to its potential or planned use.

Methane (CH4)

Methane is produced in connection with the digestion and decomposition of organic substances, e.g. manure, wastewater sludge or biodegradable waste. In addition, it is generated in livestock enteric fermentation, which is the largest source of methane emissions in the greenhouse gas inventory. In addition to the above, methane is generated in incomplete combustion and evaporates in the processing, transfer and distribution of natural gas and biogas.

Monitoring Mechanism (EU)

A mechanism based on the decision of the European Parliament and of the Council for monitoring community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol, which obliges the Member States to contribute the EU's common greenhouse gas inventory and other climate policy, and to monitoring and evaluating detailed measures under it.

National Inventory Report

A report containing the results of the national greenhouse gas inventory, which must be submitted annually to the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol and the EU and in future also to the Paris Agreement. The National Inventory Report includes information on the development and sources of greenhouse gas emissions and removals, the methods, assumptions and data sources used in the calculations, uncertainty assessment and quality assurance of the reporting country.

National monitoring mechanism for greenhouse gas emissions

International climate conventions (incl. the Paris Agreement) and the EU require each country to have a system for the assessment and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals. The division of responsibilities related to the inventory as well as the legislative and procedural arrangements are defined and reported for the system. In Finland the responsible unit appointed for the system is Statistics Finland. The Ministry of the Environment is the national body responsible for the Climate Convention (UNFCCC).

Nitrous oxide (N2O)

Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) is a substance causing ozone depletion and it is a significant greenhouse gas. Its contribution to the greenhouse gas effect per unit of mass is approximately 300-fold that of carbon dioxide. Agriculture is the biggest source of nitrous oxide emissions.

Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change. Its goal is to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels and to work towards measures that would limit global warming to under 1.5 degrees Celsius. The agreement was adopted on 12 December 2015 and entered into force on 4 November 2016. The agreement complements the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Under the agreement, progress towards the goals will be reviewed every five years. The first overall review will be carried out in 2023.

In order to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement, all parties to the agreement are expected to take ambitious and over time tightening measures to reduce emissions, adapt to climate change, increase climate funding, develop and transfer technology, strengthen operational capability and increase transparency. The Paris Agreement does not contain quantified emission reduction commitments, but the parties undertake in the agreement to prepare, inform, maintain and achieve their consecutive national emission targets. The parties have a duty to prepare a national contribution every five years, and the latest national goal must always be more ambitious than the previous one.

Recalculation

In connection with changes in the methodological and source data, the standard procedure used in the inventory calculations is to recalculate the estimate by using the same method and uniform source data for all the inventory years to ensure uniformity and consistency.

Removal (from atmosphere)

A carbon sink absorbs some chemical compound that contains carbon, usually carbon dioxide. The most important carbon sinks are the seas and forests. Algae and plants absorb carbon dioxide into biomass in photosynthesis. Biomass growth in forest trees significantly absorbs carbon. Carbon accumulates in litter, dead wood and soil, but it is also released in the decomposition process. Carbon is also dissolved in the sea as carbon dioxide and other inorganic forms.

Sink

Any process, action or mechanism that absorbs greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. A carbon stock to which more carbon accumulates than is released into the atmosphere or transferred to another stock can also be called a sink.

Source

Any process or action releasing greenhouse gases, aerosols or precursors of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere.

UNFCCC

The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), signed in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.

Volatile organic compounds excl. methane (NMVOC)

NMVOC is a generic name for volatile organic compounds that easily vaporise in the atmosphere, excluding methane. Volatile organic compounds are released, for instance, in burning processes and when using solvents. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and NMVOCs react in the presence of sunlight to produce ozone.

Accuracy, reliability and timeliness

Overall accuracy

In the light of the best current knowledge, the greenhouse gases statistics reflect emissions, subject to the limits and definitions agreed in the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement. The aim of the guidelines was to ensure that the methods were scientifically sound and objective.

The reliability of the emissions estimates of the inventory (and the related statistical release) is assessed using the uncertainty estimation methods set out in the inventory guidelines. The annual results of the uncertainty analyses are reported in the National Inventory Report.
 

Timeliness

The GHG emissions data for Finland are reported annually to the European Commission and to the UNFCCC. Inventory reporting under Paris Agreement starts in 2024. The most recent statistical data according to the reporting rules are from two years ago (n-2). The national inventory of GHG emissions is submitted to the European Commission by 15 January. The Commission is responsible for the compilation of the EU-level inventory. It is possible for Member States to supplement and update their data until 15 March. The EU inventory is compiled from the deliveries of the Member States and delivered to the UNFCCC Secretariat by 15 April. Finland submits its own final inventory to the UNFCCC Secretariat by the same date. In addition, instant preliminary data calculated using simplified GHG inventory methods are submitted to the Commission by 31 July. The instant preliminary data concern the year preceding the reporting year (n-1).

The data (instant preliminary data) calculated using simplified inventory methods are published in May with a delay of t+5 months. Preliminary data are released in December with a delay of 12 months. The official data for the statistical reference year are published with the delay of around 15 months.

Punctuality

The delivery date is the same as the target date.

Completeness

The greenhouse gases statistics cover anthropogenic GHG emissions and sinks within the borders of Finland starting from 1990.
 

Data revision

The comparability of the time series over time is one of the basic principles of compiling the inventory. If the inventory methods change, the previous years are recalculated, or the comparability of the time series is ensured in accordance with the IPCC Guidelines. Recalculation are described more detailed in the inventory report which is submitted to the EU and UNFCCC.
 

Sampling error

When compiling the statistics on greenhouse gases, no sampling is used for data calculated by Statistics Finland, but the expert organisations providing data also use sample-based source data in their calculations.
 

Processing error

Examples of possible errors in statistical releases include erroneous figures in release texts, figures or tables, or use of incorrect concepts. Unlike revisions, error situations are unexpected deviations in the normal production of statistics.

Errors are corrected and the users are informed about them as quickly as possible. Statistics Finland informs about significant errors to the same extent and through the same channels as in the releasing of the original data.

Notations about corrections and their points of time are added to the corrected releases.

Recalculation are described more detailed in the inventory report which is submitted to the EU and UNFCCC.

Comparability

Comparability - geographical

The international comparability of the Finnish inventory is ensured by using the IPCC methods, classifications and presentation structure agreed at the Meetings of the Parties of the UNFCCC.

The reported data cover all the main emission sources, sinks and gases referred to in the IPCC Guidelines. Any exceptions to coverage are specified in the reporting tables and in the National Inventory Report for each sector.
 

Comparability - over time

The time series for the inventory start in 1990, the base year under the UNFCCC. The comparability of the time series over time is one of the basic principles of compiling the inventory. If the inventory methods change, the previous years are recalculated, or the comparability of the time series is ensured in accordance with the IPCC Guidelines.
 

Coherence - cross domain

CO2 emissions from energy use make up the majority of the GHG inventory emissions. They are also published annually in Statistics Finland’s energy statistics and in preliminary energy statistics.

The GHG emission estimates published in the preliminary energy statistics are calculated using more simplified methods than the corresponding figures in the GHG inventory. The earlier years of the GHG emission time series of both the preliminary and final energy statistics are made uniform with the inventory data.

As part of the inventory, data on energy use and generation are reported, which also form part of the data of the energy statistics. There are differences in baseline data, classifications and level of detail between the energy statistics and the inventory, but work is underway to harmonise these areas.

The following differences and similarities must be taken into account when comparing the data from the energy statistics and the GHG inventory:
  • the total fuel consumption and the resulting CO2 emissions reflect the same thing in both statistics; the aim is to harmonise the data to the extent possible;
  • the total fuel consumption in the GHG inventory does not include other energy sources (e.g. nuclear power, hydro power, etc.);
  • the amount of CO2 emissions in the energy statistics does not include CO2 or other greenhouse gases from other sources, while the GHG inventory also reports all GHG emissions from the energy sector;
  • the total GHG emissions of the energy statistics (excluding sinks) are a rough estimate based on the preliminary energy statistics, which are produced using different methods than the corresponding data in the GHG inventory.
The following differences and similarities must be taken into account when comparing the GHG inventory with the data on emissions by industry:

-  The statistics on emissions into the air by industry according to the Environment Economic Accounts Regulation (EU) No 691/2011 also include emissions from land, water and air transport by Finnish citizens and from Finnish fishing vessels abroad;
- Emissions from land, water and air transport by foreign nationals are deducted from the air emissions by industry in Finland. This residence-principle approach differs from the approach used in the GHG inventory, which only includes emissions from the territory of Finland, irrespective of the nationality of the person responsible for the emission (principle of territoriality). An exception in the greenhouse gas inventory is the wood product stock of the LULUCF sector: Carbon stock changes for wood products made of domestic wood are also reported in the inventory as concerns exported wood products, when the so-called production-based approach is used in the calculation. This approach is used in reporting under the Kyoto Protocol and in EU reporting, so Finland's inventory also uses it;
- The classification and division of industries used in the statistics differ from the division of sectors used in the reporting of greenhouse gases. The definition of transport corresponds to the national accounts procedure, in which transport by households is part of private consumption. In the energy statistics and the GHG inventory, the transport sector covers all modes of transport.

Coherence - sub-annual and annual statistics

Sub-annual statistics are not published from the statistics on greenhouse gases.
 

Coherence - internal

The comparability of the time series over time is one of the basic principles of compiling the inventory. If the inventory methods change, the previous years are recalculated, or the comparability of the time series is ensured in accordance with the IPCC Guidelines.
 

Source data and data collections

Source data

The data used in the calculation of energy and industrial process emissions are obtained from administrative registers, the information system of the environmental administration, the emissions trading data of the Energy Authority, and the data collected by Statistics Finland for the production of energy statistics, as well as other administrative data of Statistics Finland. The F-gas emission calculation is based on annual data collection from economic operators.

The statistics of the Natural Resources Institute Finland and the Food Authority are the main sources of data for the calculation of emissions in the agricultural sector. The main data sources for the calculation of emissions and removals in the LULUCF sector are the National Forest Inventory, and the statistics on forestry and agriculture. The emission calculation for waste management is carried out on the basis of administrative data and modelling.

Data collection

The administrative data for energy and industrial process calculations are delivered to Statistics Finland as line transfers according to agreements. Emissions and removal data for F-gases and the agricultural, waste and LULUCF sectors are obtained from the expert organisations through the UNFCCC reporting tool (CRF Reporter).

Frequency of data collection

The data used in the statistics are annual data.
 

Confidentiality

Data protection is a fundamental principle of official statistics, by which the availability of reliable basic data and the confidence of data suppliers is ensured. Attending to the protection of data is a prerequisite for the trust Statistics Finland must have when collecting data.
 

Methods

Data compilation


 

Data validation

Data from different sources are compared with data from the previous year. Quality control is guided by the international reporting guidelines.
 

Documentation on methodology

The greenhouse gases statistics are based on Statistics Finland’s international GHG inventory reporting. Calculation methodologies are described more detailed in the inventory report which is submitted to the EU and UNFCCC.

The annual reporting of the GHG inventory data takes place through standard reporting tables as set out in the UNFCCC and from 2024 Paris agreement guidelines, as well as through the National Inventory Report. The preparation of the GHG inventory is guided by the reporting guidelines of the UNFCCC and Paris Agreement the IPCC methodological guidelines for assessing emissions. The IPCC guidelines cover all sectors, and experts from around the world have contributed to their development. The IPCC guidelines allow reporting countries to select the methodological levels best suited for the calculation of the different emission categories based on the resources and data available in each country.

The submission of GHG inventory data to the UN must include supplementary information on the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in accordance with Article 7.1 of the Protocol. For example, the additional information must include emissions and removals from LULUCF activities under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4 of the Protocol, descriptions of the national inventory system and the national emissions register, and information on transfers of emissions units between the parties to the Kyoto Protocol.

The EU's Monitoring Mechanism Regulation, its amendment, as well as its Implementing Regulation and Delegated Regulation, set their own requirements for the national inventories of the Member States.

Reporting guidelines for the UNFCCC inventory: IPCC guidelines for inventory calculations: Guidance for reporting under the Kyoto Protocol:

 

Principles and outlines

Contact organisation

Statistics Finland

Contact organisation unit

Economic Statistics

Legal acts and other agreements

The compilation of statistics is guided by the Statistics Act. The Statistics Act contains provisions on collection of data, processing of data and the obligation to provide data. Besides the Statistics Act, the Data Protection Act and the Act on the Openness of Government Activities are applied to processing of data when producing statistics.

Statistics Finland compiles statistics in line with the EU’s regulations applicable to statistics, which steer the statistical agencies of all EU Member States.

The time series are published so that no individual enterprise’s data or development can be deduced from them.

The greenhouse gases statistics are based on Statistics Finland’s international GHG inventory reporting. The Finnish Government adopted a resolution on the organisation of climate policy activities by the government authorities on 30 July 2003. In accordance with the Resolution, Statistics Finland is the responsible body for the national inventory system for GHG emissions. Statistics Finland guides the inventory work, and compiles and sends the data independently to the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol supplementing it, Paris Agreement and the EU Commission. The role of Statistics Finland as the responsible body for the national GHG inventory system was confirmed in the Climate Change Act (609/2015) in 2015.

Finland is a party to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which entered into force in 1994. In addition, Finland is a party to the Kyoto Protocol, which supplements the UNFCCC. It entered into force in February 2005. Paris Agreement was adopted on 2015 and the reporting under PA will start in the 2021 inventory year. The Paris Agreement supplements the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) concluded in 1992. The parties have agreed on the reporting of emissions by the UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement decisions. In addition to emissions, the reporting covers the uptake of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere (removals/sinks).

Statistics Finlandthe Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE)the Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) and the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland participate in the production of the statistics. Other key parties are the ministries involved in the drafting of the climate policy: the Ministry of the Environmentthe Ministry of Agriculture and Forestrythe Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment and the Ministry of Transport and Communications. The resources of the national monitoring mechanism are allocated to the expert organisations via the performance guidance of the relevant ministries.

In addition to the regulations governing Statistics Finland, the production of the data is based on agreements between Statistics Finland and the expert organisations on the production and reporting of emission inventory data, as well as on collaboration with the responsible ministries.


Further information: Statistical legislation

 

Confidentiality - policy

The data protection of data collected for statistical purposes is guaranteed in accordance with the requirements of the Statistics Act (280/2004), the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999), the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and the Data Protection Act (1050/2018). The data materials are protected at all stages of processing with the necessary physical and technical solutions. Statistics Finland has compiled detailed directions and instructions for confidential processing of the data. Employees have access only to the data essential for their duties. The premises where unit-level data are processed are not accessible to outsiders. Members of the personnel have signed a pledge of secrecy upon entering the service. Violation of data protection is punishable.

Further information: Data protection | Statistics Finland (stat.fi)

Agreements have been made with enterprises in industries with only a few enterprises (fewer than 3) to enable the publication and reporting of the emissions and production volumes of the industry in question to the EU and the UN.

Confidentiality - data treatment

The data materials are protected at all stages of processing with the necessary physical and technical solutions. The unit-specific data of the calculation data must be kept confidential.
 

Release policy

Statistics Finland publishes new statistical data at 8 am on weekdays in its web service. The release times of statistics are given in advance in the release calendar available in the web service. The data are public after they have been updated in the web service.

Further information: Publication principles for statistics at Statistics Finland

The data (instant preliminary data) calculated using simplified GHG inventory methods are published in May with a delay of t+5 months. The preliminary data are published in December, and the same data are sent to the EU Commission as a draft report by mid-January. The final data are published as a database release with a delay of around t+15 months in March. The data are also reported to the EU at that time. The same data are also transmitted to the Secretariat of the UNFCCC and to the Kyoto Protocol by 15 April at the latest.

The Finnish summary report is published in May, accompanied by instant preliminary data on emissions and data on regional emissions.

Data sharing

Statistics Finland publishes new statistical data in its web service. Reporting tables and inventory report is submitted to EU and UNFCCC.

 

Accessibility and clarity

Statistical data are published as database tables in the StatFin database. The database is the primary publishing site of data, and new data are updated first there. When releasing statistical data, existing database tables can be updated with new data or completely new database tables can be published. 

In addition to statistical data published in the StatFin database, a release on the key data is usually published in the web service. If the release contains data concerning several reference periods (e.g. monthly and annual data), a review bringing together these data is published in the web service. Database tables updated at the time of publication are listed both in the release and in the review. In some cases, statistical data can also be published as mere database releases in the StatFin database. No release or review is published in connection with these database releases.

Releases and database tables are published in three languages, in Finnish, Swedish and English. The language versions of releases may have more limited content than in Finnish. 

Information about changes in the publication schedules of releases and database tables and about corrections are given as change releases in the web service.

Two regular releases and one database release are made annually from these statistics. The first release (instant preliminary data) is published five months after the end of the reference year (t), the next release at t+12 months, and the release of the database for the same reference year at around t+15 months. In the first release, only regional GHG emission database tables are updated, while in the second and third releases, the national GHG emission database tables are updated.
 

Micro-data access

Unit-level data used in the compilation of the statistics are not available to others than producers of statistics.

Data revision - policy

Revisions – i.e. improvements in the accuracy of statistical data already published – are a normal feature of statistical production and result in improved quality of statistics. The principle is that statistical data are based on the best available data and information concerning the statistical phenomenon. On the other hand, the revisions are communicated as transparently as possible in advance. Advance communication ensures that the users can prepare for the data revisions.

The reason why data in statistical releases become revised is often caused by the data becoming supplemented. Then the new, revised statistical figure is based on a wider information basis and describes the phenomenon more accurately than before.

Revisions of statistical data may also be caused by the calculation method used, such as annual benchmarking or updating of weight structures. Changes of base years and used classifications may also cause revisions to data.

Relevance

Statistics Finland is the national responsible unit of the greenhouse gas inventory. Statistics Finland guides the inventory work, and compiles and sends the data independently to the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement and the EU Commission. The role of Statistics Finland as the responsible body for the national GHG inventory system was confirmed in the Climate Change Act (609/2015) in 2015.
 

User needs

The statistics are part of Finland's national reporting to the EU, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol, from 2024 on also to the Paris Agreement. Ministries, other public administration, research institutes and think tank-type organisations (Finnish Environment Institute, Finnish Innovation Fund Sitra, etc.), the media, consultants and other enterprises, non-governmental organisations, interest groups. The data are also used by international organisations.
 

User satisfaction

User satisfaction has not been analysed for the statistics.

Quality management

Quality management is used to ensure that the inventories and their reports and releases produced by Finland's greenhouse gas monitoring system are of high quality and fulfil the requirements set for monitoring greenhouse gases as regards transparency, consistency, comparability, completeness, accuracy and timeliness. The principles and elements of the quality management system are harmonised both with the international agreements and guidelines on the monitoring of greenhouse gases as well as the ISO 9001:2000 standard.
The review and reporting of the inventory data are carried out by the reviewer teams coordinated by the UNFCCC Secretariat and the EU, and they regularly assess the fulfilment of the inventory quality criteria. The reviews can be written reviews of inventory data (centralised review, desk review) according to the annual schedule or on-site visits of experts (review in the target country).
Picture: Annual inventory process:

The high quality and continuous improvement of the inventory is ensured by producing the annual inventory systematically in four main phases: planning, preparation, evaluation and improvement. During the different phases of the inventory process a clear set of documentation is produced, which makes up the basis for the inventory’s transparency. The documentation enables external evaluation of the inventory as well as a repeat of it, if needed. Analysing the experiences of the year before, taking note of inspection feedback and planning the new inventory round accordingly create the preconditions for production of even better inventories.
 

Quality assessment

The experts involved in the compilation of the statistics are responsible for planning, carrying out and documenting the practical implementation of the QC review of the inventory within their respective inventory areas in accordance with the inventory protocols. Inventory experts implement the QC activities in accordance with the QA/QC plan within their respective inventory areas and document the performance of the activities on the QA/QC form, the inventory report and the documentation concerning their inventory area in an appropriate manner over the course of the inventory work.
 

Quality assurance

Quality management requires comprehensive guidance of activities. The quality management framework of the field of statistics is the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP). The frameworks complement each other. The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are also compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice.

Further information: Quality management | Statistics Finland (stat.fi)

For each inventory area of the statistics, the QA activities to be performed systematically or in connection with individual projects are identified, such as collecting comments or confirming data by contacting an external expert or from literature, evaluations performed by an internal support team and Nordic cooperation. The QA activities for each inventory area and their results are recorded in the internal documentation of the inventory (what, who, how, when, and results and conclusions) and described with appropriate accuracy in the sectoral chapters of the National Inventory Report (NIR) and in the QA/QC form.

The achievement of the quality objectives and the implementation and results of the activities listed in the QA/QC plan are reviewed annually either in the quality meetings between the responsible unit and the inventory experts, or in the desk review conducted by the quality coordinator (in December to March, before the data transmission to the EU on 15 March). The inventory areas for the quality meetings and desk review are selected in the autumn mainly on the basis of changes in the inventory and review feedback.

In addition to compliance with the QA/QC plan, the quality meetings and desk review examine the review feedback, the adequacy of the inventory report descriptions and reporting structure development needs, inventory development needs, plans and projects, and the flow of practical inventory work (resources, timetables, procedural flow, need for support). In addition, the methods and timetables for the production of the instant preliminary data for the previous year (n-1) are reviewed.

The conducting of internal audits is agreed separately with each inventory area. They are carried out as visits of 0.5 to two days by the representatives of the unit responsible for the inventory to expert institutions or as desk reviews. It is recommended that the inventory review feedback also include feedback from reviewers external to the parties responsible for the inventory (third parties). The reviews are carried out taking into account the resources needed to compile and develop the annual inventory and the received review feedback.

User access

Data are released to all users at the same time. Statistical data may only be handled at Statistics Finland and information on them may be given before release only by persons involved in the production of the statistics concerned or who need the data of the statistics concerned in their own work before the data are published.

Further information: Publication principles for statistics

Unless otherwise separately stated in connection with the product, data or service concerned, Statistics Finland is the producer of the data and the owner of the copyright. The terms of use for statistical data.

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