Greenhouse gases: documentation of statistics
Basic data of the statistics
The statistics on greenhouse gases comprise data on emissions and removals of greenhouse gases in Finland. The greenhouse gas inventory data is used to monitor national emission reduction efforts and Finland’s international reduction commitments. Instant preliminary, preliminary and final data are published annually.
- carbon dioxide (CO2)
- methane (CH4)
- nitrous oxide (N2O)
- sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
- nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).
Emissions are reported for the following sectors:
- Energy: energy use of fuels, and evaporative and fugitive emissions related to the production, distribution and consumption of fuels.
- Industrial processes and product use: emissions from industrial processes, emissions from the use of raw materials and fuels used as raw materials, emissions from the use of F-gases, and emissions from the use of nitrous oxide for industrial and medical applications.
- Agriculture:CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management, soil N2O emissions, N2O emissions of field burning of agricultural residues, and CO2 emissions from liming and urea application.
- Land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF): carbon stock changes (emissions and changes) for the following land-use categories: forest land, cropland, grassland, wetlands, settlements and other land. Other items reported include carbon stock changes for wood products, emissions from wildfires and forest fires, N2O emissions from land converted to cropland, forest fertilisation, drained forest land and peat extraction areas, and CH4 emissions from drained forest land and peat extraction areas.
- Waste: emissions from landfilling, compost and digestion and sewage treatment.
- Indirect CO2 from fossil fugitive emissions or industrial process and product use (IPPU) emissions of CH4 and NMVOC.
Unit of measure
The greenhouse gas inventory data are produced in accordance with the new EU governance regulation, and global warming potential (GWP) factors according to the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) are adopted in EU reporting from 2023 on and in Paris agreement from 2024 on.
Table 1. GWP factors according to the IPCC Assessment Reports (SAR, AR4 and AR5)
|SAR (1996)1||AR 4 (2007)2||AR 5 (2014)3|
|SF6||23 900||22 800||23 500|
|NF3||-||17 200||16 100|
|HFCs and PFCs4||140–11 700||12–17 340||4–12 400|
|1 In accordance with the inventory reporting guidelines, up to the 2014 inventory submission.
2 In accordance with the inventory reporting guidelines, starting from the 2015 inventory submission.
3 In accordance with the inventory reporting guidelines, starting from the 2023 inventory submission.
4 Mandatory reporting items.
energy use of fuels, and evaporative and fugitive emissions related to the production, distribution and consumption of fuels.
Industrial processes and product use:
emissions released in industrial processes, emissions from the use of raw materials and fuels in raw materials use, emissions from the use of F-gases, and emissions from the use of nitrous oxide in industrial and medical applications.
CH4 emissions from livestock enteric fermentation, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management, N2O emissions from agricultural soils, N2O emissions from field burning of agricultural residues, and CO2 emissions from liming and urea application
Land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF):
CO2 emissions and sinks from the land use categories: forest land, cropland, grassland, wetlands, settlements and other land. Other items reported include emissions from wood products, wildfires and controlled burning, N2O emissions from land converted to cropland, forest fertilisation, drained forest land and peat extraction areas, and CH4 emissions from drained forest land and peat extraction areas.
landfills, composting and wastewater treatment
Indirect CO2 emissions from NMVOC and CH4 emissions are also reported for industrial processes and the energy sector.
Under the agreement, progress towards the goals will be reviewed every five years. The first overall review will be carried out in 2023.
In order to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement, all parties to the agreement are expected to take ambitious and over time tightening measures to reduce emissions, adapt to climate change, increase climate funding, develop and transfer technology, strengthen operational capability and increase transparency. The Paris Agreement does not contain quantified emission reduction commitments, but the parties undertake in the agreement to prepare, inform, maintain and achieve their consecutive national emission targets. The parties have a duty to prepare a national contribution every five years, and the latest national goal must always be more ambitious than the previous one.
Accuracy, reliability and timeliness
The reliability of the emissions estimates of the inventory (and the related statistical release) is assessed using the uncertainty estimation methods set out in the inventory guidelines. The annual results of the uncertainty analyses are reported in the National Inventory Report.
The data (instant preliminary data) calculated using simplified inventory methods are published in May with a delay of t+5 months. Preliminary data are released in December with a delay of 12 months. The official data for the statistical reference year are published with the delay of around 15 months.
Errors are corrected and the users are informed about them as quickly as possible. Statistics Finland informs about significant errors to the same extent and through the same channels as in the releasing of the original data.
Notations about corrections and their points of time are added to the corrected releases.
Recalculation are described more detailed in the inventory report which is submitted to the EU and UNFCCC.
Comparability - geographical
The reported data cover all the main emission sources, sinks and gases referred to in the IPCC Guidelines. Any exceptions to coverage are specified in the reporting tables and in the National Inventory Report for each sector.
Comparability - over time
Coherence - cross domain
The GHG emission estimates published in the preliminary energy statistics are calculated using more simplified methods than the corresponding figures in the GHG inventory. The earlier years of the GHG emission time series of both the preliminary and final energy statistics are made uniform with the inventory data.
As part of the inventory, data on energy use and generation are reported, which also form part of the data of the energy statistics. There are differences in baseline data, classifications and level of detail between the energy statistics and the inventory, but work is underway to harmonise these areas.
The following differences and similarities must be taken into account when comparing the data from the energy statistics and the GHG inventory:
- The total fuel consumption and the resulting CO2 emissions reflect the same thing in both statistics; the aim is to harmonise the data to the extent possible;
- The total fuel consumption in the GHG inventory does not include other energy sources (e.g. nuclear power, hydro power, etc.);
- The amount of CO2 emissions in the energy statistics does not include CO2 or other greenhouse gases from other sources, while the GHG inventory also reports all GHG emissions from the energy sector;
- The total GHG emissions of the energy statistics (excluding sinks) are a rough estimate based on the preliminary energy statistics, which are produced using different methods than the corresponding data in the GHG inventory.
- The statistics on emissions into the air by industry according to the Environment Economic Accounts Regulation (EU) No 691/2011 also include emissions from land, water and air transport by Finnish citizens and from Finnish fishing vessels abroad;
- Emissions from land, water and air transport by foreign nationals are deducted from the air emissions by industry in Finland. This residence-principle approach differs from the approach used in the GHG inventory, which only includes emissions from the territory of Finland, irrespective of the nationality of the person responsible for the emission (principle of territoriality). An exception in the greenhouse gas inventory is the wood product stock of the LULUCF sector: Carbon stock changes for wood products made of domestic wood are also reported in the inventory as concerns exported wood products, when the so-called production-based approach is used in the calculation. This approach is used in reporting under the Kyoto Protocol and in EU reporting, so Finland's inventory also uses it;
- The classification and division of industries used in the statistics differ from the division of sectors used in the reporting of greenhouse gases. The definition of transport corresponds to the national accounts procedure, in which transport by households is part of private consumption. In the energy statistics and the GHG inventory, the transport sector covers all modes of transport.
Coherence - sub-annual and annual statistics
Coherence - internal
Source data and data collections
The statistics of the Natural Resources Institute Finland and the Food Authority are the main sources of data for the calculation of emissions in the agricultural sector. The main data sources for the calculation of emissions and removals in the LULUCF sector are the National Forest Inventory, and the statistics on forestry and agriculture. The emission calculation for waste management is carried out on the basis of administrative data and modelling.
Frequency of data collection
Documentation on methodology
The annual reporting of the GHG inventory data takes place through standard reporting tables as set out in the UNFCCC and from 2024 Paris agreement guidelines, as well as through the National Inventory Report. The preparation of the GHG inventory is guided by the reporting guidelines of the UNFCCC and Paris Agreement the IPCC methodological guidelines for assessing emissions. The IPCC guidelines cover all sectors, and experts from around the world have contributed to their development. The IPCC guidelines allow reporting countries to select the methodological levels best suited for the calculation of the different emission categories based on the resources and data available in each country.
The emission reduction commitments of Kyoto Protocol ended for the inventory year 2020, but to the ending of the reporting a decision of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. The submission of GHG inventory data to the UN must include supplementary information on the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in accordance with Article 7.1 of the Protocol. For example, the additional information must include emissions and removals from LULUCF activities under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4 of the Protocol, descriptions of the national inventory system and the national emissions register, and information on transfers of emissions units between the parties to the Kyoto Protocol.
The EU's Monitoring Mechanism Regulation, its amendment, as well as its Implementing Regulation and Delegated Regulation, set their own requirements for the national inventories of the Member States.
Reporting guidelines for the UNFCCC inventory:
- 24/CP.19 UNFCCC reporting guidelines on annual inventories for Parties included in Annex I to the Convention (2013)
In the inventory, the warming potential of different greenhouse gases is translated into a common measure, i.e. CO2 equivalent, using Global Warming Potential (GWP) factors. In the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (2007) are used (25 for methane, 287 for nitrous oxide, and 12–22,800 for F-gases, depending on the gas).
- Paris Agreement - The Rulebook concerning the implementation of the Paris Agreement was adopted at the Katowice Climate Change Conference in 2018 and finalised at the Glasgow Climate Change Conference in 2021. The rules are comprehensive and common to all, while also allowing certain limited flexibilities for the developing countries.
- IPCC 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (2006)
- 2013 Revised Supplementary Methods and Good Practice Guidance Arising from the Kyoto Protocol (2013)
- 2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands The use of the Wetlands guidelines is optional, unless a party to the Kyoto Protocol has chosen to implement activities related to the drainage and rewetting of wetlands. Finland has not chosen such activities but has applied these guidelines in the selection of emission factors for drained organic soils to complement national research data.
- 2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (2019) – voluntary under Paris Agreement
- 2/CMP.7 Land use, land-use change and forestry
- 2/CMP.8 Implications of the implementation of decision 2/CMP.7 to 5/CMP.7 on the previous decisions on methodological issues related to the Kyoto Protocol, including those relating to Articles 5, 7 and 8 of the Kyoto Protocol
- 6/CMP.9 Guidance for reporting information on activities under Article 3, paragraphs 3 and 4, of the Kyoto Protocol3/CMP.11 Implications of the implementation of decisions 2/CMP.7 to 4/CMP.7 and
- 1/CMP.8 on the previous decisions on methodological issues related to the Kyoto Protocol, including those relating to Articles 5, 7 and 8 of the Kyoto Protocol, part I: implications related to accounting and reporting and other
Principles and outlines
Contact organisation unit
Legal acts and other agreements
Statistics Finland compiles statistics in line with the EU’s regulations applicable to statistics, which steer the statistical agencies of all EU Member States.
The time series are published so that no individual enterprise’s data or development can be deduced from them.
The greenhouse gases statistics are based on Statistics Finland’s international GHG inventory reporting. The Finnish Government adopted a resolution on the organisation of climate policy activities by the government authorities on 30 July 2003. In accordance with the Resolution, Statistics Finland is the responsible body for the national inventory system for GHG emissions. Statistics Finland guides the inventory work, and compiles and sends the data independently to the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol supplementing it (until 2022), Paris Agreement (from 2024 on) and the EU Commission. The role of Statistics Finland as the responsible body for the national GHG inventory system was confirmed in the Climate Change Act (609/2015).
Finland is a party to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which entered into force in 1994. In addition, Finland is a party to the Kyoto Protocol, which supplements the UNFCCC. It entered into force in February 2005. Paris Agreement was adopted on 2015 and the reporting under PA will start in the 2021 inventory year. The Paris Agreement supplements the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) concluded in 1992. The parties have agreed on the reporting of emissions by the UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement decisions. In addition to emissions, the reporting covers the uptake of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere (removals/sinks).
Statistics Finland, the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), the Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) and the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland participate in the production of the statistics and in the calculation of emissions and removals as actual expert organisations. Other key parties are the ministries involved in the drafting of the climate policy: the Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment and the Ministry of Transport and Communications. The resources of the national monitoring mechanism are allocated to the expert organisations via the performance guidance of the relevant ministries.
In addition to the regulations governing Statistics Finland, the production of the data is based on agreements between Statistics Finland and the expert organisations on the production and reporting of emission inventory data, as well as on collaboration with the responsible ministries. Some parts of the emission calculation are purchased by Statistics Finland.
Further information: Statistical legislation
Confidentiality - policy
Further information: Data protection | Statistics Finland (stat.fi)
Agreements have been made with enterprises in industries with only a few enterprises (fewer than 3) to enable the publication and reporting of the emissions and production volumes of the industry in question to the EU and the UN.
Confidentiality - data treatment
Further information: Publication principles for statistics at Statistics Finland
The data (instant preliminary data) calculated using simplified GHG inventory methods are published in May with a delay of t+5 months. The preliminary data are published in December, and the same data are sent to the EU Commission as a draft report by mid-January. The final data are published as a database release with a delay of around t+15 months in March. The data are also reported to the EU at that time. The same data are also submitted to the Secretariat of the UNFCCC by 15 April at the latest.
Accessibility and clarity
In addition to statistical data published in the StatFin database, a release on the key data is usually published in the web service. If the release contains data concerning several reference periods (e.g. monthly and annual data), a review bringing together these data is published in the web service. Database tables updated at the time of publication are listed both in the release and in the review. In some cases, statistical data can also be published as mere database releases in the StatFin database. No release or review is published in connection with these database releases.
Releases and database tables are published in three languages, in Finnish, Swedish and English. The language versions of releases may have more limited content than in Finnish.
Information about changes in the publication schedules of releases and database tables and about corrections are given as change releases in the web service.
Two regular releases and one database release are made annually from these statistics. The first release (instant preliminary data) is published five months after the end of the reference year (t), the next release at t+12 months, and the release of the database for the same reference year at around t+15 months. In the first release, only regional GHG emission database tables are updated, while in the second and third releases, the national GHG emission database tables are updated.
Data revision - policy
Revisions – i.e. improvements in the accuracy of statistical data already published – are a normal feature of statistical production and result in improved quality of statistics. The principle is that statistical data are based on the best available data and information concerning the statistical phenomenon. On the other hand, the revisions are communicated as transparently as possible in advance. Advance communication ensures that the users can prepare for the data revisions.
The reason why data in statistical releases become revised is often caused by the data becoming supplemented. Then the new, revised statistical figure is based on a wider information basis and describes the phenomenon more accurately than before.
Revisions of statistical data may also be caused by the calculation method used, such as annual benchmarking or updating of weight structures. Changes of base years and used classifications may also cause revisions to data.
The review and reporting of the inventory data are carried out by the reviewer teams coordinated by the UNFCCC Secretariat and the EU, and they regularly assess the fulfilment of the inventory quality criteria. The reviews can be written reviews of inventory data (centralised review, desk review) according to the annual schedule or on-site visits of experts (review in the target country).
The high quality and continuous improvement of the inventory is ensured by producing the annual inventory systematically in four main phases: planning, preparation, evaluation and improvement. During the different phases of the inventory process a clear set of documentation is produced, which makes up the basis for the inventory’s transparency. The documentation enables external evaluation of the inventory as well as a repeat of it, if needed. Analysing the experiences of the year before, taking note of inspection feedback and planning the new inventory round accordingly create the preconditions for production of even better inventories.
Quality management requires comprehensive guidance of activities. The quality management framework of the field of statistics is the European Statistics Code of Practice (CoP). The quality criteria of Official Statistics of Finland are also compatible with the European Statistics Code of Practice.
Further information: Quality management | Statistics Finland (stat.fi)
For each inventory area of the statistics, the QA activities to be performed systematically or in connection with individual projects are identified, such as collecting comments or confirming data by contacting an external expert or from literature, evaluations performed by an internal support team and Nordic cooperation. The QA activities for each inventory area and their results are recorded in the internal documentation of the inventory (what, who, how, when, and results and conclusions) and described with appropriate accuracy in the sectoral chapters of the National Inventory Report (NIR) and in the QA/QC form.
The achievement of the quality objectives and the implementation and results of the activities listed in the QA/QC plan are reviewed annually either in the quality meetings between the responsible unit and the inventory experts, or in the desk review conducted by the quality coordinator (in December to March, before the data transmission to the EU on 15 March). The inventory areas for the quality meetings and desk review are selected in the autumn mainly on the basis of changes in the inventory and review feedback.
In addition to compliance with the QA/QC plan, the quality meetings and desk review examine the review feedback, the adequacy of the inventory report descriptions and reporting structure development needs, inventory development needs, plans and projects, and the flow of practical inventory work (resources, timetables, procedural flow, need for support). In addition, the methods and timetables for the production of the instant preliminary data for the previous year (n-1) are reviewed.
The conducting of internal audits is agreed separately with each inventory area. They are carried out as visits of 0.5 to two days by the representatives of the unit responsible for the inventory to expert institutions or as desk reviews. It is recommended that the inventory review feedback also include feedback from reviewers external to the parties responsible for the inventory (third parties). The reviews are carried out taking into account the resources needed to compile and develop the annual inventory and the received review feedback.
Further information: Publication principles for statistics
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