Published: 16 January 2007

Greenhouse gas emissions below Kyoto target in 2005

According to the figures submitted by Statistics Finland to the EU, in 2005 greenhouse gas emissions in Finland were below the target level of the Kyoto Protocol for the first time since the beginning of the 1990s. The target level for Finland is defined by the emissions level of the year 1990.

In 2005, greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 69.3 Mt of CO2 equivalent, which is almost three per cent less than in 1990. The low emissions resulted mostly from reasons other than actual measures aimed at their reduction. Due to the excellent water situation, Finland was able to import a record amount of electricity produced with CO2 free hydro power from the Nordic electricity markets. National production of condensate electricity with fossil fuels and peat fell. Emissions from the energy industry decreased in 2005 by 34 per cent from the previous year. Industrial action in the forest industry was also reflected through decreased energy consumption in the emission volumes of the manufacturing and energy sectors.

Greenhouse gas emissions have fluctuated considerably in Finland between 1990 and 2005. However, a rising trend can be distinguished in the time series. The annual variation is mainly explained by the ratio between imported and nationally produced condensate electricity in annual energy consumption. The range of the fluctuation has exceeded 10 Mt CO2.

Most of the greenhouse gas emissions are CO2 emissions from the energy sector. In 2005, CO2 emissions totalled 16 per cent less than in the year before and were approximately at the same level than in 1990. Most of the emissions originated from the combustion of fossil fuels and peat in energy production (21.5 Mt CO2) and manufacturing (11.6 Mt CO2). Emissions from transport were also a substantial source (13.5 Mt CO2).

Emissions of other important greenhouse gases, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), have decreased from the emission levels of 1990. In 2005, N2O emissions were 13 per cent lower and CH4 emission 30 per cent lower than in 1990. N2O emissions have diminished mainly due to decreased use of nitrogen fertilisation. The energy sector and industrial processes, such as production of nitric acid, are other relevant sources of N2O emissions. Methane emissions come mostly from waste management and enteric fermentation of livestock. Methane emissions have fallen mainly due to improvements in waste treatment and contraction of animal husbandry.

Emissions of F-gases (HFCs, PFCs and SF6), which are used in refrigeration and air conditioning equipment are clearly on the increase. In 2005, emissions of F-gases were eightfold compared to 1995. Under the Kyoto Protocol, Finland's emissions of F-gases are compared to the level of emissions in 1995. The significance of F-gases in total emissions is, however, small.

Sinks from the Land use, Land use change and Forestry sector (so-called sink sector) refer to removals of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. In the national inventory, removals and emissions of this sector are reported separately from the emissions of other sectors. In Finland, the net sink of this sector amounted to over 30 Mt CO2 in 2005. The sink was mainly accounted for by removal of CO2 from the atmosphere by forest growth. Emissions and removals of the sink sector are only partially covered by the Kyoto Protocol. Conversions in forest cover (afforestation and deforestation) are fully included. In addition, parties to the Protocol can elect voluntary actions (forest management, cropland management, grazing land management and revegetation), which can be taken into account in meeting the emission reduction target. In the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, Finland will utilise a limited possibility of taking into account sinks from forest growth in meeting its emission reduction target.

On 22 December 2006, Finland submitted to the UNFCCC secretariat a report on the basis of which Finland's assigned amount of emissions will be confirmed for the 2008-2012 commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Once confirmed, the assigned amount cannot be changed even if emissions for the base year did change in the national greenhouse gas inventory. In future, the annual greenhouse gas inventory will form part of the reporting under the Kyoto Protocol. To be eligible to participate in Kyoto mechanisms, such as emission trading, Finnish inventories must meet the set criteria and pass the reviews of the inventories.

Final submission of the greenhouse gas inventory concerning inventory year 2005 will be submitted to the UNFCCC by 15 April 2007.

Development of greenhouse gas emissions by sector in 1990-2005 relative to the 1990 level, % (1990=100)

Greenhouse gas emissions by gas in 1990, 1995-2005 (Mt of CO2)

  1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
CO2
Energy use of fuels 53,24 54,90 60,62 58,94 55,85 55,31 53,37 58,53 61,12 68,74 64,64 53,17
Industrial processes 3,31 3,03 3,16 3,45 3,43 3,51 3,60 3,56 3,48 3,81 3,96 3,68
Other sources 0,34 0,26 0,24 0,28 0,22 0,21 0,20 0,19 0,19 0,19 0,18 0,19
N2O
Agriculture 4,97 4,38 4,27 4,22 4,12 4,01 4,05 3,97 3,92 3,86 3,76 3,73
Industrial processes 1,66 1,46 1,46 1,44 1,38 1,35 1,36 1,28 1,34 1,42 1,46 1,57
Energy 1,01 1,09 1,16 1,19 1,20 1,23 1,23 1,30 1,36 1,45 1,45 1,37
Other sources 0,23 0,22 0,22 0,22 0,22 0,22 0,21 0,21 0,20 0,20 0,20 0,21
CH4
Waste 3,83 3,76 3,67 3,57 3,42 3,34 3,13 3,02 2,81 2,63 2,49 2,29
Agriculture 2,15 1,93 1,95 1,98 1,94 1,91 1,91 1,88 1,90 1,88 1,86 1,85
Energy 0,32 0,38 0,39 0,37 0,38 0,36 0,34 0,36 0,36 0,36 0,35 0,35
Other sources 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,01 0,01 0,02 0,02
F-gases
  0,09 0,10 0,15 0,24 0,30 0,40 0,58 0,73 0,53 0,71 0,73 0,89
Total
  71,14 71,53 77,30 75,93 72,47 71,84 70,00 75,06 77,21 85,25 81,10 69,32

NB Due to rounding, the sums in the table may not always agree.

Emissions and removals from the Land use, Land use change and Forestry sector in 1990, 1995-2005

  1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Forest land
CO2 -27,79 -24,06 -31,32 -25,27 -24,74 -25,89 -25,26 -28,08 -26,92 -25,70 -26,17 -37,64
N2O 0,028 0,007 0,008 0,013 0,009 0,014 0,014 0,012 0,013 0,012 0,012 0,011
CH4 0,009 0,005 0,003 0,006 0,002 0,005 0,002 0,005 0,006 0,005 0,001 0,004
Cropland
CO2 7,42 6,90 7,13 6,71 6,13 5,80 5,28 5,09 4,62 4,17 3,86 3,61
Grassland
CO2 -1,65 1,09 0,60 1,00 1,74 2,39 2,97 3,23 2,70 3,01 3,19 2,33
Wetland (peat extraction areas)
CO2 0,59 0,66 0,67 0,68 0,68 0,68 0,68 0,70 0,69 0,64 0,61 0,69
N2O 0,008 0,008 0,009 0,009 0,009 0,009 0,009 0,009 0,009 0,008 0,008 0,009
CH4 0,006 0,007 0,007 0,007 0,007 0,007 0,007 0,007 0,007 0,007 0,006 0,007
Total netsink -21,39 -15,38 -22,90 -16,85 -16,16 -16,98 -16,29 -19,06 -18,87 -17,85 -18,49 -30,97

(Negative figures indicate removal, positive ones emission)

Full submission concerning the year 2005

Source: Greenhouse gas emissions in Finland 1990-2005, National Inventory Report to the EU, 15 January 2007. Statistics Finland

Inquiries: Mr Kari Grönfors +358 50-3649464; Ms Tuija Lapveteläinen +358 9)1734 3528, firstname.lastname@stat.fi

Director in charge: Ms Kaija Hovi

Tables

Tables in databases

Appendix tables

Figures

Last updated 16.1.2007

Viittausohje:

Suomen virallinen tilasto (SVT): Greenhouse gases [verkkojulkaisu].
ISSN=1797-6065. 2005. Helsinki: Statistics Finland [viitattu: 15.9.2019].
Saantitapa: http://www.stat.fi/til/khki/2005/khki_2005_2007-01-16_tie_001_en.html