Published: 31 August 2018

Number of persons working in cultural occupations and industries remained almost on level with the previous year

Nearly 110,000 persons worked in cultural industries in 2017. Employment in the industries has remained almost on level with the previous year, but it has decreased by around 10 per cent from 2011.

In 2017, around 127,000 persons were working in cultural occupations, nearly as many as in 2011.

Employment in cultural industries and occupations in 2011 to 2017

Employment in cultural industries and occupations in 2011 to 2017

Source: Statistics Finland: Labour Force Survey

A considerably large share of those working in cultural occupations were self-employed. Seventy-two per cent were working as wage and salary earners and 28 per cent were self-employed, while the corresponding shares in other occupations were 88 and 12 per cent.

Nearly one-half of musicians, singers and composers were self-employed. Of other large occupational groups, 43 per cent of graphic and multimedia designers and around one-third of journalists, authors and architects were self-employed (Employed labour force in cultural occupations by employer sector, in finnish) .

Only 60 per cent of those employed in cultural occupations had a permanent employment relationship, while the corresponding share for those working in other occupations is 74 per cent. The difference is explained by the large share of self-employed persons. Twelve per cent of those employed in cultural occupations worked in fixed-term positions and the remainder were self-employed.

Permanency of employment relationship in cultural and other occupations in 2017

Permanency of employment relationship in cultural and other occupations in 2017

Source: Labour force survey

Twenty-two per cent of those in cultural occupations had a part-time job, while in other occupations only 16 per cent worked part time.

The work of those employed in cultural occupations is often project-type short-term jobs, and several simultaneous jobs are also common. Around 11 per cent of those in cultural occupations had more than one job and nearly six per cent of those working in other occupations in 2017.

The average weekly working hours of those working in cultural occupations as their main job were slightly shorter than among those in other occupations. It was 33 hours in cultural occupations and nearly 36 hours in other occupations.

In both cultural occupations and industries, the number of men and women on the total level was almost equal.

Male-dominated occupations included sales and marketing managers, broadcasting and audio-visual technicians, musical instrument makers and tuners, glass-makers, cutters, grinders and finishers, glass-engravers and etchers, printers, print finishing and binding workers.

Female-dominated occupations include, e.g. filing and copying clerks, library clerks, interior designers and decorators, dancers and choreographers, and crafts and art teachers (Employed labour force in cultural occupations by gender) .

Among industries, printing of newspapers and other papers was dominated by men, while translation and interpretation was a female-dominated industry.

Cultural professionals are highly educated. Sixty-four per cent of those working in cultural occupations had tertiary level education, while the share was only 44 per cent in other occupations. Twenty-eight per cent of those employed in cultural occupations had upper secondary level education. Eight per cent had not acquired post-basic level education.

These data derive from Statistics Finland’s Labour Force Survey and the employment statistics.

Level of education distribution of those working in cultural and other occupations as their main job in 2017, %

Level of education distribution of those working in cultural and other occupations as their main job in 2017, %

Source: Labour force survey

Labour force and unemployment rate of those with qualifications in the field of culture

The labour force with qualifications in the field of culture has more than doubled from 2000 and was 84,167 in 2016. The activity rate of those with qualifications in the field of culture among the whole labour force with qualifications has also grown from 2.1 per cent in 2000 to 3.7 per cent in 2016.

The unemployment rate of those with qualifications in the field of culture one year after their graduation has long been higher than the average unemployment rate of all fields of education (Cultural Statistics’ table service, Table 11.6) .

Unemployment rate in the cultural industry and of those with qualifications from all fields of education one year after graduation in 2000 to 2016

 Unemployment rate in the cultural industry and of those with qualifications from all fields of education one year after graduation in 2000 to 2016

Source: Statistics Finland, Education

In 2017, the number of unemployed jobseekers in arts occupations was 7,144, whereas in 2000, they numbered just 3,214. Of all unemployed jobseekers 2.3 per cent were arts professionals. As many as 36 per cent of unemployed jobseekers in arts occupations were visual artists (Cultural Statistics’ table service, Table 11.7) .

These data derive from Statistics Finland’s Education Statistics

Earnings in cultural occupational groups

In 2017, over 30,000 workers in cultural occupations were employed in the private sector. Advertising and public relations managers attained monthly earnings of over EUR 6,000. The average earnings of men were EUR 6,413 and of women EUR 6,237. The earnings were lowest, EUR 2,431, among technical employees at galleries, museums and libraries (Cultural Statistics’ table service, Table 11.9) .

A total of 6,067 persons were working in the local government sector in cultural occupations in 2017. In the local government sector, the average regular monthly earnings were EUR 3,036, for men EUR 3,458 and for women EUR 2,943. Of cultural occupations, theatre directors earned most, EUR 5,144, on average. City architects also attained earnings of over EUR 5,000. Museum assistants’ earnings remained under EUR 2,000 as they earned EUR 1,875, on average (Cultural statistics’ table service, Table 11.8) .


Source: Cultural statistics 2016 Statistics Finland

Inquiries: Kaisa Weckström 029 551 2348, kulttuuri.tilastokeskus@stat.fi

Director in charge: Jari Tarkoma


Updated 31.8.2018

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Culture [e-publication].
ISSN=2341-7404. Cultural Employment in Finland 2017. Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 17.12.2018].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/klt/2017/01/klt_2017_01_2018-08-31_tie_001_en.html