Concepts and definitions
- Accommodation capacity
Accommodation capacity consists of bedrooms and bed-places in accommodation establishments. A bedroom is a unit formed by one room or groups of rooms constituting an indivisible rental whole in an accommodation establishment (e.g. hotel) or a dwelling. A caravan pitch (provided with electric socket) equates to one accommodating unit.
A bed-place refers to a sleeping place for one person set up in an establishment. The number of bed-places indicates how many persons can be accommodated in an establishment at the same time. A bed-place applies to a single bed. A double bed is counted as two bed-places. For one caravan pitch 4 bed-places are counted.
- Accommodation establishment
An accommodation establishment is an establishment (local kind-of-activity unit) providing overnight lodging for holiday spenders and other travellers in rooms or some other units. In the accommodation statistics of Statistics Finland, accommodation establishments are classified according to the standard industrial classification (TOL 2008) into hotels and similar establishments (guest houses), youth hostels, holiday villages and camping sites.
- Arrival in accommodation establishment
In tourism statistics, an "arrival" is a statistical unit used to measure the volume of tourist/visitor flows. In accommodation statistics, arrivals refer to guest arrivals in accommodation establishments who check in to spend one or more nights in the establishment. 'Arrivals' also indicate the demand for accommodation services measured by the number of customers.
In the Border Interview survey (Frontier survey) or statistics collected by Frontier Guard officers, an 'arrival' refers to a visitor arrival at the national borders.
The number of bed-places in an establishment or dwelling is determined by the number of persons who can stay overnight in beds set up in the establishment, ignoring any extra beds that may be set up by customer request. The term bed-place applies to a single bed. A double bed is counted as two bed-places. This unit serves to measure the capacity of any type of accommodation (e.g. one caravan pitch counts as 4 bed-places).
In the Finnish accommodation statistics extra beds are often firm fixtures of accommodation facilities, especially when the accommodation unit is a cottage (chalet, bungalow). In these cases the capacity is usually given by the number of accommodated persons, e.g. 4+2 persons.
- Bed-place occupancy rate
The net occupancy rate of bed-places in one month is obtained by dividing the total overnight stays by the number of bed-places on offer and the number of days when the bed-places are actually available for use (net of seasonal or other temporary closures for decoration, etc.) for the same group of establishments.
The gross occupancy rate of bed-places in one month is obtained by dividing the total overnight stays by the number of bed-places and the number of days in the corresponding month (sometimes termed bed-nights) for the same group of establishments.
- Business trip
The category of business and professional trips comprises all business and professional activities outside the usual environment. The visitor takes the professional trip because of requirements related to his/her occupation or the economic activity of the production unit for which he/she works. This category includes sales to foreign enterprises, attending meetings, conferences or congresses, trade fairs and exhibitions, employer incentive tours, etc. Usually it is the employer who pays the costs for business trip.
In the Finnish Travel survey this category of trips goes under the heading 'Business/conference'.
- Caravan pitch
Camp sites let pitches for tents, caravans, mobile homes and similar shelter to tourists who want to stay on a "touring" pitch for only a couple of consecutive days or weeks, as well as to people who want to hire a "fixed" pitch for a season or a year.
In the Finnish Accommodation statistics, only pitches provided with electric sockets are counted in the accommodation capacity corresponding to one lodging unit. In the EU and other international tourism statistics 4 bed-places are counted per one pitch. Besides camp sites hotels and other accommodation establishments (e.g. holiday villages) may have caravan pitches provided with sockets which are also counted in the accommodation capacity in Finland.
- Country of residence
For the purpose of tourism statistics, country of residence is defined as the country where a person has lived for most of the past 12 months. Tourists are defined as non-residents/residents according to the country of residence, and not to the nationality.
- Domestic tourism
Domestic tourism comprises the activities of residents of a given country travelling to and staying in places inside their residential country, but outside their usual environment for not more than 12 consecutive months for leisure, business or other purposes.
- Duration of trip
Duration of trip refers to the time spent during a visit measured from the standpoint of the generating country or place. A trip begins when leaving home and ends when returning home. By duration trips are classified into two main categories: same-day visits and overnight trips. The maximum duration for overnight trips is 12 consecutive months. The maximum duration for same-day visits is less than 24 hours, so that departure and return takes place within the same calendar day and no nights are spent during the trip.
- Hotel room
A bedroom is a unit formed by one room or group of rooms constituting an indivisible rental whole in an accommodation establishment (e.g. a hotel) or dwelling. Rooms may be single, double or multiple depending on whether they are equipped permanently to sleep one, two or several people. Apartments are a special type of room. They consist of one or more rooms and have a kitchen unit and own bathroom and toilet. Cabins, cottages, huts, bungalows, villas and summerhouses can be treated like bedrooms and apartments, i.e. to be let as a single unit.
- Inbound tourism
Inbound tourism is defined as comprising the activities of non-residents travelling to a given country that is outside their usual environment, and staying there no longer than 12 consecutive months for leisure, business or other (corresponding) purpose.
- Internal tourism
Internal tourism comprises "domestic tourism" of residents of a given country and "inbound tourism" of non-residents to that country.
- International tourism
International tourism comprises "inbound tourism" (non-residents' visits to a given country) and "outbound tourism" of residents of a given country (residents' visits abroad).
- International tourism expenditure
International tourism expenditure is defined (by the World Tourism Organization, WTO) as expenditure of outbound visitors in other countries including their payments to foreign carriers for international passenger transport. It also includes any other payments or payments afterwards made for goods and services received in the country of destination. The definition is more extensive than that of the travel expenditure in the Balance of Payments in which international passenger transport is not included.
- International tourism receipts
International tourism receipts are defined (by WTO) as expenditure of international inbound visitors including their payments to national carriers for international transport. They also include any other payments or payments afterwards made for goods and services received in the destination country. The definition is more extensive than that of the travel expenditure in the Balance of Payments in which international passenger transport is not included.
- Leisure trip
A leisure trip refers to the purpose and motive of a visit. Trips (visits) for leisure, recreation and holiday purposes outside the usual environment are mainly undertaken for relaxation. It is the visitor who decides to take the tourist trip as an activity unconnected with his/her occupation, and the trip is usually financed out of household funds.
In the Finnish travel survey all trips that do not come under the category of 'Business/congress trips' are considered leisure trips. This category covers trips to own holiday home, visits to friends and relatives, as well as leisure cruises and same-day visits.
- Outbound tourism
Outbound tourism comprises the activities of residents of a given country travelling to and staying in places outside their country of residence and outside their usual environment for not more than 12 consecutive months for leisure, business and other purposes.
- Overnight stay
In the tourism statistics of the EU (Eurostat) an overnight stay is a statistical unit to measure both the volume of tourism, e.g. duration of stay on the supply side and duration of trip on the demand side. Number of nights spent (duration of stay) either in collective or private accommodation refers to the time spent during a visit measured from the standpoint of the receiving country or place.
On the other hand, the number of nights spent during a trip (duration of trip) measures the time a traveller spends away from home. In the tourism demand statistics (the Finnish Travel survey), the duration of a trip is classified by the number of nights spent into two main categories: short trips including 1-3 nights, and long trips including 4 or more nights. Overnight travelling by boat/ferry, train or other vehicle is included in the total number of nights spent during the trip. As regards tourism statistics, the maximum duration of stay in the destination place/country is 12 consecutive months.
- Overnight trip
An overnight trip refers to a trip outside the usual environment, during which at least one night is spent in private or collective accommodation either for free or for a charge. The maximum duration of a trip is 12 consecutive months.
In the Finnish Travel survey an overnight trip is a statistical unit to measure the volume of overnight tourism. The duration of a trip is measured by the number of nights spent during it. Overnight travelling by boat/ferry, train or other vehicles is included in the total number of nights spent during the trip.
- Passenger transportation accounts
In the Balance of Payments passenger transportation services cover all services provided - between the compiling economy and abroad or between two foreign economies - in the international transportation of non-residents by resident carriers (credit) and that of residents by non-resident carriers (debit). Excluded are passenger services provided to non-residents by resident carriers within the resident economies; these are included in travel. In addition to the services covered by passenger fares - including fares that are a part of package tours - passenger services include such items as charges for excess baggage, vehicles, or other personal accompanying effects and expenditure on food, drink, or other items on which passengers make expenditures while on board carriers.
- Place of residence
For the purpose of international/domestic tourism statistics, a person is considered to be a resident in a country/place where he/she has lived for most of the past 12 months. As regards international tourism, place of residence usually refers to the country of residence. As regards domestic tourism, place of residence is often defined as an administrative unit, like municipality or region.
- Price per overnight
In the accommodation statistics of Statistics Finland price per overnight indicates the average price per overnight stay (VAT included), i.e. the average price a customer has paid for one night spent in an accommodation establishment.
- Reason for trip
Purpose of visit refers to the motivation of the trip, the reason in the absence of which the trip would not have taken place. If a trip has more than one purpose (e.g. combined business and holiday trip) the main purpose of visit refers to the reason in the absence of which the trip would not have taken place or the given destination would not have been visited.
- Rented cottage, holiday dwelling
In the tourism statistics, a rented cottage (chalet, bungalow) refers to a private rental tourist accommodation. As a mode of accommodation rented cottage can be compared to one's own holiday home. They are usually rented on a weekly, fortnightly or monthly basis, either direct from the owner or by a mediator. Accommodation in cottages (chalets, bungalows) provided by hotels, holiday villages or camping sites belongs to the category of collective accommodation establishments.
In Finland rented holiday dwellings located in the surroundings of tourists centres have increased rapidly in recent years. In the area of tourism centres rented holiday dwellings form a sort of holiday community, where, besides accommodation, dwellers are offered other services, like cleaning, laundry, waste disposal and other maintenance services. The dwellers can also use all the services offered in the centre, such as restaurant and catering services, shops, spas, ski lifts, ski slopes and tracks.
- Room occupancy rate
Room occupancy rate indicates the ratio between occupied rooms and available rooms. Two variables of room occupancy are used in tourism statistics: net occupancy rate and gross occupancy rate. Net occupancy rate is obtained by dividing the number of rooms occupied by the number of rooms actually available in a given month, net of seasonal or other temporary closures. Gross occupancy rate is calculated by dividing the number of rooms occupied in a given month by the total number of rooms, irrespective whether the rooms are actually available or not.
- Room price
In Statistics Finland's accommodation statistics, room price (room rate) indicates the average price (incl. VAT) per occupied room per day, i.e. the average price a customer has paid for a room for an overnight stay. The average room rate is calculated by dividing the sales revenue from sold rooms (VAT included) by the number of occupied rooms.
Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than 12 consecutive months for leisure, business and other purposes.
- Tourism expenditure
Tourism expenditure refers to the total consumption expenditure made by a visitor, or on behalf of a visitor for goods and services during his/her trip and stay at the destination place (country). It also includes payments in advance or after the trip for services received during the trip. Payments for domestics or international passenger transport are also included in tourism expenditure (cf. Travel accounts in the Balance of Payments).
A tourist (overnight visitor) is a visitor who stays at least one night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited. An international tourist is an international visitor who stays at least one night in the country visited. A domestic tourist refers to a domestic visitor who stays at least one night in the place visited.
A visitor who does not spent one night during the trip is called same-day visitor.
- Tourist accommodation
Tourist accommodation refers to any facility that regularly or occasionally provides overnight accommodation for tourists. Accommodation can be chargeable or free.
- Travel accounts
In the Balance of Payments (BOP), travel covers primarily the goods and services acquired from an economy by a traveller during visits of less than one year in that economy. It includes the goods and services purchased by, or on behalf of, the traveller or provided without a quid quo pro for the traveller to use or give away. Included are payments made for goods and services in advance or afterwards. Excluded is the international carriage of travellers, which is covered (in the BOP) in passenger services under transportation (cf. the general definition of Tourism expenditure).
As an item in the BOP, Travel accounts indicate the ratio between the receipts and expenditure of international tourism of a given country. The balance is positive when receipts from non-resident tourists (credit) are bigger than the expenditure of resident tourists abroad (debit). The balance is negative when debit exceeds credit.
As a statistical unit of tourism, a trip depicts tourism from the standpoint of the generating place or country (the origin) and covers the whole period a person travels away from home (origin-based perspective).
- Trip abroad
A trip (visit) abroad refers to a trip made by a resident of a given country outside the national borders of his/her country of residence and outside his/her usual environment for leisure, business or other reason. The maximum duration of stay in the destination country is 12 consecutive months. A trip is an operational statistical unit of outbound tourism and it is derived from the World Tourism Organization's definitions of 'outbound tourism' and 'international visitor'.
- Type of accommodation
Mode of accommodation refers to different means of lodging. In the accommodation statistics of Statistics Finland, overnight stays are broken down by means of lodging into the following groups: 1) room, cottage, chalet, bungalow 2) caravan, travel trailer, camper and 3) tent or other.
As mode of accommodation, lodging in cottages (chalets, bungalows) provided by hotels, holiday villages and camping sites is equivalent to lodging in rooms.
- Type of accommodation establishment
In the accommodation statistics of Statistics Finland, accommodation establishments (hotels and similar establishments, tourist camping sites, holiday villages, youth hostels) are classified by certain characteristics to some 20 groups. The classification is informal and characterises the activity of an establishment. For instance, hotels are classified by type into the following groupings: conference/business hotels, spa hotels, summer hotels, resort hotels, estate hotels, residential hotels and motels.
- Use of capacity
Use of accommodation capacity is measured by room and bed-place occupancy rates. Room occupancy rate is calculated by dividing the total number of rooms used in a given month by the number of rooms actually available for that month. The occupancy rate of bed-places is calculated by dividing the number of nights spent in a given month by the total number of available bed-places.
- Usual environment
The usual environment of a person consists of the direct vicinity of his/her home and place of work or study and other places frequently visited (e.g. food shops, bank and other services). The concept of usual environment and, therefore, tourism has two dimensions: frequency and distance. Places which are frequently visited by a person (on a routine basis) are considered as part of the usual environment even though these places may be located at a considerable distance from the place of residence (e.g. weekly visits to one's own holiday home). On the other hand, places located close to the place of residence of a person are also part of the usual environment even if actual spots are rarely visited.
A visitor is any person travelling to a place other than his/her usual environment and staying there for no longer than 12 consecutive months and whose main purpose of travel is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. The term visitor (domestic and international) comprises tourists and same-day visitors.
In this connection remuneration refers to salary/wages or similar pay except for travelling expenses, daily expense or other minor compensations.
Official Statistics of Finland (OSF):
Accommodation statistics [e-publication].
ISSN=1799-6325. Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 12.2.2016].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/matk/kas_en.html