Revisions in National Accounts time series, 14 July 2011
Statistics Finland has made revisions to its National Accounts time series for the 1975-2007 period. There are two main reasons for this.
First, the old standard industrial classification (TOL 2002) has been replaced by a new standard industrial classification (TOL 2008) in the Accounts. Other economic statistics of Statistics Finland have already adopted the new classification earlier. The transition timetables have been decreed in EU regulations.
Second, the revisions are due to the renewal of the National Accounts information system, in consequence of which the methods and the utilisation of the data sources have been reviewed, and corrections have been made to errors detected in the time series.
All series have been genuinely calculated according to the revised industrial classification starting from 2008 because the revised classification has been adopted in the source statistics starting from 2008. The data describing the 2008 to 2010 period are preliminary and no supply and use tables have yet been compiled for these years. Supply and use tables by the revised industrial classification are not calculated retrospectively.
In certain isolated cases, the data concerning 2007 and 2008 are not fully comparable with each other and the time series contain breaks. The break is not very significant in any series.
Changes in the industrial classification
The biggest change in the classification concerns the main categories at the character level. These comprise, for instance, J Information and communication, M Professional, scientific and technical activities, N Administrative and support service activities, R Arts, entertainment and recreation, and S Other service activities.
Examples of new 2-digit level activities would be e.g. 33 Repair and installation of machinery and equipment, 78 Employment activities, 79 Travel agency, tour operator and other reservation service and related activities, and 80 Security and investigation activities. Industries separated into their own categories include 21 Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations, 37 Sewerage, 92 Gambling and betting activities and 93 Sports activities and amusement and recreation activities.
The old activity categories (TOL 2002) which have been divided among several new activities comprise especially 63 Supporting and auxiliary transport activities, 748 Miscellaneous business activities, 90 Sewage and refuse disposal, sanitation and similar activities and 92 Recreational, cultural and sporting activities, as well as several manufacturing activities.
The revised industrial classification and a more detailed description of changes in it have been published in the Handbooks series of Statistics Finland and can be accessed on the agency's website (http://tilastokeskus.fi/meta/luokitukset/toimiala/001-2008/index_en.html).
Application of TOL 2008 in National Accounts
The headings used in National Accounts for some activities deviate from those in the official standard industrial classification in order to make them shorter, simpler and better suited to the circumstances in Finland. However, the contents of the categories are the same. For instance, category 02 "Forestry and logging" is in National Accounts Forestry and category 16 "Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials" is in National Accounts the Woodworking industry.
In the main, National Accounts data are calculated at the 2-digit level of the classification but, for instance in forestry and manufacturing, at the 3-digit level. The data for manufacturing are published at the 2-digit level.
Some 2-digit level categories have also been combined in National Accounts calculations. These are 59_60 Audio-visual activities, 62_63 Computer and information service activities, 87_88 Social work activities and 90_91 Cultural activities.
There are four activity categories in National Accounts which do not appear in the official industrial classification. These are 025 Net growth of forests (previously included on silviculture), 844 Defence equipment and conscripts (differentiated from public administration), 845 Maintaining of railways and 846 Maintaining of roads and streets. Maintaining of railways and maintaining of roads and streets were previously included in the main category of transport, storage and communication from where they were moved into the main public administration category O.
There is no output in Finland in categories 05 Mining of coal and lignite or 06 Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas. Industry 99 Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies is not included in the economic area of Finland but in the sector rest of the world. Likewise, National Accounts do not contain category 00 Industry unknown but all activities have been classified into some industry.
In National Accounts, the industry of construction is divided into two sub-categories, Building construction and Civil engineering. The division has been made so that sub-category 431 Demolition and site preparation of industry 43 Specialised construction activities of the actual industrial classification has been classified into the category of Civil engineering and the rest of its sub-categories into Building construction.
Prior to 1990, the data on industry 75 Veterinary activities were contained in the data on industry 86 Human health activities, and the data on industry 845 Maintaining of railways in the data on industry 49 Land transport (rail transport). This was also the case in the past.
The categories of the new classification covered in National Accounts number 182 whereas in the old classification they numbered 184. On Statistics Finland's website, the data are published at the accuracy of 90 industries and in printed publications at the accuracy of 44 industries. Quarterly accounts data are published for 11 industries except for value added data which are published for 20 industries.
General principles applied in calculating data for the industries for the 1975-2007 period
Series by the revised standard industrial classification have been calculated retrospectively back to 1975. The calculation was done by adhering to the previous summary current-priced levels of gross value added and other transactions of all industries in the 1975-2007 period. If the summed up series of all industries deviate from the old ones it means that either a rounding error or revisions caused by other changes (than the industrial classification) have taken place. See sections Other revisions and Other changes below. Exceptions to this are output, intermediate consumption and consumption of fixed capital, whose total levels deviate from the old levels due to the reasons explained later on. Small deviations from old levels have been allowed for all transactions in constant-priced series.
Three different methods have been used in the compiling of data by industry for the years from 1975 to 2007.
First, roughly one-half of the industries (calculated from value added) have been transferred one-to-one from the old industries, so that just the code has changed and in some cases also the heading, but the contents of the covered activity have remained unchanged. The largest of these industries are the wood and paper industry, manufacture of basic metals, energy supply, civil engineering, wholesale trade, water transport, air transport, hotels and restaurants, financial and insurance intermediation, health and social work and activities of membership organisations.
Second, in certain cases separate exact data have been available on how an old industry divides between the new industry categories. Their overall significance has been minor. For instance, industries 79 Travel agency, tour operator etc. activities and 92 Gambling and betting activities were in the past independent accounting activities in the SNA 68 system concerning the years from 1975 to 1991. Conceptual changes in National Accounts in transferring from the SNA68 system to the SNA93/ESA95 system, and changes in the defining of activities were estimated to be so small that the data for the years concerned were used as such. In these cases, series for the years from 1991 to 2008 were calculated by utilising data on turnover.
Third, in other cases, each old industry has been divided between new industries and the new industries have been formed by summing up the parts transferred from the different old industries. The dual coding used in the source statistics has been exploited in dividing the old industries between the new industries. For the past few years, the statistical units of these statistics have been coded by both the TOL 2002 and the TOL 2008 classification. For example, the regional and industrial statistics on manufacturing have been double coded for the years between 1985 and 2008, the Register of Enterprises and Establishments for the 1995-2008 period and the regional and industrial statistics on services for the period between 2002 and 2008. The data on previous years have been divided between industries relative to their shares in certain linkage years.
For instance, in the old classification retail sale of automotive fuel was included in the sale of motor vehicles (50) but is in the new classification included in retail sales (47), and repair of personal and household goods was in the old classification included in retail trade (52) but is in the new classification a category of its own (95) to which output was also transferred from other old industries.
In this case, data for the industry of retail trade are calculated by deducting repair of household goods from the old retail trade category and by adding retail trade of automotive fuel to it:
|Year 2007, output EUR million||TOL 2002||TOL 2008|
|50 Sale, maintenance and repair of
motor vehicles and
motorcycles; service station activities (TOL 2002)
|45 Wholesale and retail trade and
repair of motor vehicles
and motorcycles (TOL 2008)
|47 Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles (TOL 2008)||649|
|52 Retail trade; repair of personal and household goods (TOL 2002)||9,557|
|47 Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles (TOL 2008)||9,377|
|95 Repair of computers and personal and household goods (TOL 2008)||180|
|47 Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles (TOL 2008)||10,026|
Non-financial corporations and households
In sectors S11 Non-financial corporations and S14 Households, some of the old industries were moved one-to-one to new industries but a considerable proportion of the old industries had to be divided between new industries. The dual coding of statistical units used in the source statistics was exploited in these cases.
In primary production (category A), old industries were either moved one-to-one to new industries or an exact time series was available for the item to be moved. Gathering of forest berries and mushrooms was moved from agriculture to category 023 Gathering of wild growing non-wood products of forestry, and cultivation of Christmas trees was moved from forestry to agriculture. A previously compiled times series was available for these. An existing time series was also available for industry 025 Net growth of forests, which had been detached into its own activity from silviculture.
In manufacturing (activities B_E), some industries were moved one-to-one to new industries but the regional and industrial statistics on manufacturing which have dual coding for the 1985-2008 period could be utilised for the industries needing to be divided. For the 1985-1994 period, the statistics are based on Statistics Finland's own inquiry with which establishment-specific data were obtained. Since 1995, business taxation data have also been available in addition to those obtained with the own inquiry.
By means of the dual coding, coefficients were calculated for the old industries to decide which proportions of the figures on each industry should be moved and the industries they should be moved to.
The transactions calculated this way were market output, other intermediate consumption (than that of financial intermediation services indirectly measured, or FISIM), compensation of employees, number of persons employed and investments (fixed capital formation) with the exception of investments in computer software.
By contrast, employers' social insurance contributions were divided between the new industries in the same ratio as compensation of employees, and hours worked in the same ratio as the number of persons employed. Output for own final use, intermediate consumption of financial intermediation services indirectly measured (FISIM), other subsidies on production, other taxes on production and changes in inventories were apportioned to the new industries in the same proportion as market output. Investments in computer software were divided in the same proportion as investments in machinery, equipment and transport equipment.
Means of the shares of the two subsequent years were used in dividing the data between the years 1975 and 1984 to the new industries. For instance, the shares for 1984 are the mean shares of different industries in the years 1985 and 1986, the data for 1983 the mean shares in 1984 and 1985, and so on, whereby the shares of the different industries stabilise quickly in retrospective calculating.
In construction (category F), the activity of civil engineering, etc., was moved one-to-one from the old activity.
Two minor TOL 2002 industry classes were combined with building construction, etc.: construction service activities, and repair and maintenance of lifts, which previously belonged to category 29 Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c. In consequence of the combining the summed up output and intermediate consumption of these industries decreased because output and intermediate consumption between the activities were eliminated. The summed up value added and other transactions remained unchanged.
In services (activities G_T), some activities were moved one-to-one to new industries but there were two sets of double coded statistics that could be used for the activities that had to be divided: the Register of Enterprises and Establishments has dual coding for the period between 1995 and 2008, and the regional and industrial statistics on services for the 2002 to 2008 period. These were combined into a so-called establishment dataset that is based on data modelled from the information on establishments in the Business Register and the information concerning single-establishment enterprises in structural business statistics. These data were exploited for the years between 2002 and 2007. Using the dual coding, coefficients were calculated for the old industries to decide which proportions of the figures on each industry should be moved and the industries they should be moved to.
The double coded data of the Register of Enterprises and Establishments were used in the same way for the years between 1995 and 2001. If there were significant differences in the shares of different industries between 2001 and 2002, the data describing earlier years were chained basing on the shares in 2002.
The transactions calculated this way were market output, other intermediate consumption (than that of financial intermediation services indirectly measured, or FISIM), compensation of employees, number of persons employed and investments with the exception of investments in computer software, and entertainment, literary and art originals.
The distribution of intermediate consumption between the new industries could not be obtained from the Register of Enterprises and Establishments for the years between 1995 and 2001. The point of departure in calculating this distribution was the distribution in 2002, which was carried backwards with changes in the shares of output by using turnover as the indicator of output. If the share of an industry changed in the retrospective calculation, the share of intermediate consumption was also changed correspondingly.
Employers' social insurance contributions were divided between the new industries in the same ratio as compensation of employees, and hours worked in the same ratio as number of persons employed. Output for own final use, intermediate consumption of financial intermediation services indirectly measured (FISIM), other subsidies on production, other taxes on production and changes in inventories were divided to the new industries in the same proportion as market output.
Investments in computer software were divided in the same way as in manufacturing. Investments in entertainment, literary and art originals were divided between industries 58 Publishing activities, 59_60 Audiovisual activities and 90_91 Cultural activities by means of separate calculations.
Means of the shares of the two subsequent years were used in dividing the data between the new industries in the years from 1975 to 1994. For instance, the shares for 1994 are the mean shares of different industries in the years 1995 and 1996, the data for 1993 the mean shares of 1994 and 1995, and so on, whereby the shares of different industries stabilise quickly in retrospective calculating.
Financial and insurance corporations
In sector S12, Financial and insurance corporations, all activities were moved one-to-one to new industry categories.
Likewise, in sector S13, General government, almost all activities were moved one-to-one to new industry categories.
The old industry 0211, Silviculture, was divided to the new industries of 021 Silviculture and other forestry activities, and 025 Net growth of forests in the same way as in the other sectors by exploiting existing data. In local government, the old industry 90 Sewage and refuse disposal, etc., was moved outright to the new industry 38 Waste collection, treatment and disposal activities; materials recovery, and the old industry 748 Miscellaneous business activities n.e.c. was moved outright to the new industry 82 Office administrative, office support and other business support activities. However, in central government the old industry 748 was moved to the new industry 78 Employment activities.
In central government, starting from the year 1998, units were moved to the new industries 841_842 Public administration from the old industries 63 Supporting and auxiliary transport activities and 73 Research and development. Exact calculations were available for these.
In central government, the old industry 92 Recreational, cultural and sporting activities was moved outright to the new industry 90_91 Cultural activities. In local government, it was divided between the industries 841_842 Public administration, 90_91 Cultural activities and 93 Sports, amusement and recreation activities based on function-specific data for 2008 obtained from statistics on the finances of municipalities.
Non-profit institutions serving households
In sector S15, Non-profit institutions serving households, almost all activities were also moved one-to-one to new industry categories.
The old industry 92 was divided between the new industries 92 Gambling and betting activities, 90_91 Cultural activities and 93 Sports, amusement and recreation activities. The data for the first mentioned one existed and the remainder was divided so that 60 per cent was moved to activities 90_91 and 40 per cent to industry 93. The division ratio was based on the data in the Register of Enterprises and Establishments describing compensation of employees by a detailed classification of industries.
Consumption of fixed capital
Consumption of fixed capital was recalculated by using the data on investments calculated for the new industries. For this, investments were calculated retrospectively also prior to the year 1975 by the new industrial classification. In the industries where the TOL 2002 categories were divided between several TOL 2008 categories the basis for the division was the distribution of investments in 1975.
Because the consumption of fixed capital was recalculated in the capital stock model, its overall level also changed slightly.
Calculations at constant prices
Calculations at constant prices, i.e. at the previous year's prices, were compiled in the same way as calculations at current prices. The figures at the previous year's prices were not benchmarked to old figures at the level of the whole economy, so the development of volume may in certain places deviate slightly from the past. The deviation is not significant anywhere. Statistics Finland does not publish the figures at the previous year's prices but they are available at special request.
Figures at the reference year 2000 prices have been calculated as before by chaining data for two successive years. The reference year has not been changed in order to make comparisons with old data easier.
Effects from the revision of the industrial classification
The revision of the standard industrial classification also has other effects than changes in the data describing economic activities.
At the same time the division into private and collective consumption expenditure in local government changed because some of the consumption expenditure entered under recreational, cultural and sports services (youth work) is now entered under public administration. This reduced private consumption expenditure slightly, as well as households' adjusted disposable income, at most by approximately EUR 130 million.
As already mentioned above, the gathering of forest berries and mushrooms moved to the new category 023 Gathering of wild growing non-wood products of forestry, and at the same time the cultivation of Christmas trees moved from forestry to agriculture. In consequence of this change, value added fell in agriculture and grew in forestry. Respectively, households' entrepreneurial income decreased from agriculture and increased from forestry, at most by around EUR 50 million.
The following errors detected in the time series have been corrected.
Employment pension funds' returns and expenses (output and intermediate consumption) from investments in real estate have been almost totally included in the activity of letting of real estate in the non-financial corporations sector because real estate companies belong to the sector of non-financial corporations. However, because the rental revenues from these investments in real estate are paid direct to the employment pension funds which own them, they have been moved from the sector of non-financial corporations to the sector of employment pension funds where a new sector/type of producer/industry combination has been formed (employment pension funds/market producer/letting of real estate). The part of employment pension funds' returns from investments in real estate that was included in their social insurance activity (non-market producer) was also moved under this combination. However, employment pension funds' investments in real estate were left in the sector of non-financial corporations where real estate companies belong while the employment pension funds merely own their shares.
Starting from 2001, the data have been drawn from the profit and loss accounts of employment pension funds. The data for the years from 1975 to 2000 have been calculated by carrying the levels of 2001 backwards with the data on returns and expenses from investments in real estate obtained from insurance statistics.
In consequence of the changes, the value added of letting of real estate has grown slightly (by approximately EUR 130 million in 2007) because some of the output has moved from non-market to market producer. Respectively, employment pension funds' consumption expenditure has grown on the demand side. The net lending of employment pension funds improved (in 2007 by EUR 210 million) and that of non-financial corporations weakened correspondingly. At the same time, the net lending of general government and Finland's EDP deficit/surplus improved.
Errors detected in the time series on consumption of fixed capital have been corrected. For instance, the time series on the consumption of central government's maintenance of railways has been corrected starting from 1990. It reduced slightly the central government's value added and final consumption expenditure, mainly in the 1990-1994 period (at most by around EUR 40 million) but did not affect net lending.
Likewise, errors in series at constant prices have been corrected, for example in exports of services prior to the year 1995. The series at constant prices contain deviations from previous series even otherwise because when the industrial classification changes the new activities become deflated with price indices gathered from the old industries and the sums have not been benchmarked to the old series.
In the past, during the 1975 to 1994 period the non-financial corporations sector included the category "Industry unknown" under which compensations of employees and employers' social insurance contributions, amounting at most to EUR 660 million (1.3 per cent of compensation of employees in the whole economy), had been recorded in 1991. The share of the paid compensations of employees and social insurance contributions which deviated from their accrual and could not be allocated to any industry at that time was entered for the category of industry unknown. The series contain both positive and negative figures. A corresponding entry with an opposite sign was made to operating surplus.
In the revision, compensations of employees unspecified by industry were divided between all industries of the non-financial corporations sector in the ratio of the compensations of employees they had paid. This also affected the operating surpluses of the industries. The compensation of employees paid by the different industries decreased in the 1975-1983 period and increased in the 1984-1994 period. The operating surpluses of the industries received opposite signs. This did not change the summed up data on the non-financial corporations sector.
Households' acquisition of valuable goods had in the past also been entered for the activity of "Industry unknown". It was now recorded for industry 68202 Operation of dwellings and residential real estate.
Separate calculating of data for sector S112, Housing corporations, was abandoned in the revision and the sector was combined with the non-financial corporations sector because the source statistics on the rental dwelling companies of which it consisted are no longer produced. The significance of the sector was also minor, as its share of the value added of the non-financial corporations sector amounted to around one per cent.
One foundation has been moved from the sector of non-profit institutions serving households to the non-financial corporations sector. The impact of the move is minor, approximately EUR 10 million at most.
The calculation method for financial intermediation services indirectly measured (FISIM) was revised slightly starting from 2008, which resulted in some level changes between 2007 and 2008 in industry-specific time series, mainly in intermediate consumption. Breaks in the time series do not essentially weaken the comparability of the data describing intermediate consumption, value added and operating surplus in 2007 and 2008 in different industries.
Conversion Keys for Standard Industrial Classification Categories in National Accounts (published level)
|TOL 2002||TOL 2008|
|010_014 Agriculture and related service activities||011_016, 023|
|015 Hunting, trapping and game propagation||017|
|02 Forestry, logging and related service activities||011_016, 021, 022, 024, 025|
|10_14 Mining and quarrying||07, 08, 09, 23|
|15_16 Manufacture of food products, beverages and tobacco||10, 11, 12, 33|
|17_19 Manuf. of textiles, text. prod., leather and l. products||13, 14, 15, 32|
|20 Manufacture of wood and wood products||16|
|21 Manufacture of pulp, paper and paper products, publishing and printing||17|
|22 Publishing and printing||18, 58, 59_60|
|23 Manuf. of refined petroleum products, coke and nucl. fuel||19, 38|
|24 Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products||20, 21|
|25 Manufacture of rubber and plastic products||22, 26|
|26 Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products||23|
|27 Manufacture of basic metals||24|
|28 Manufacture of fabricated metal products||25, 26, 28, 33|
|29 Manufacture of machinery and equipment||25, 27, 28, 30, 33, 41+432_439|
|30_33 Manufacture of electrical and optical equipment||26, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33|
|34_35 Manufacture of transport equipment||28, 29, 30, 33|
|36_37Manufacturing n.e.c. and recycling||22, 25, 29, 31, 32, 38, 95|
|40_41 Electricity, gas and water supply||33, 35, 36|
|4501+4509 Building construction and construction services||41+432_439|
|4502 Civil engineering||42+431|
|50 Sale, repair and maint. of motor vehicles; service stations||45, 47|
|51 Wholesale trade and commission trade||46|
|52 Retail trade; repair of household goods||47, 95|
|55 Hotels and restaurants||55, 56|
|60 Land transport||49|
|61 Water transport||50|
|62 Air transport||51|
|63 Supporting and auxiliary transport activities||49, 52, 79, 841_842, 845, 846|
|641 Post and courier activities||53|
|642 Telecommunications||58, 59_60, 61|
|65 Financial intermediation||64|
|67 Activities auxil. to financial intermediation and insurance||66|
|701+7022+703 Other real estate activities||41+432_439, 681+68209+683, 81|
|7021 Letting and operation of dwellings||68201, 68202|
|71_74 Business activities||33, 58, 62_63, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 841_842, 95|
|72 Computer and related activities||33, 58, 62_63, 95|
|75 Administration, compulsory social security||841_842, 843, 844|
|851_852 Human health and veterinary activities||75, 86|
|853 Social work activities||87_88|
|90_93 Other community, social and personal services||37, 38, 39, 59_60, 61, 62_63, 81, 841_842, 85, 90_91, 92, 93, 94, 96|
|95 Household service activities||97_98|
|TOL 2008||TOL 2002|
|011_016 Agriculture||010_014, 02|
|021 Silviculture and other forestry activities||02|
|023 Gathering of wild growing non-wood products||010_014|
|024 Support services to forestry||02|
|025 Net growth of forests||02|
|07 Mining of metal ores||10_14|
|08 Other mining and quarrying||10_14|
|09 Mining support service activities||10_14|
|10 Manufacture of food products||15_16|
|11 Manufacture of beverages||15_16|
|12 Manufacture of tobacco products||15_16|
|13 Manufacture of textiles||17_19|
|14 Manufacture of wearing apparel||17_19|
|15 Manufacture of leather and related products||17_19|
|16 Woodworking industry||20|
|17 Paper industry||21|
|19 Manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products||23|
|20 Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products||24|
|21 Pharmaceutical industry||24|
|22 Manufacture of rubber and plastic products||25,36_37|
|23 Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products||10_14,26|
|24 Manufacture of basic metals||27|
|25 Manufacture of fabricated metal products||28,29,36_37|
|26 Electronics industry||25,28,30_33|
|27 Manufacture of electrical equipment||29,30_33|
|28 Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.||28,29,30_33,34_35|
|29 Manufacture of motor vehicles, etc.||30_33,34_35,36_37|
|30 Manufacture of other transport equipment||29,34_35|
|31 Manufacture of furniture||36_37|
|32 Other manufacturing||17_19, 30_33, 36_37|
|33 Repair and installation of machinery and equipment||15_16, 28, 29, 30_33, 34_35, 40_41, 71_74|
|35 Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply||40_41|
|36 Water collection, treatment and supply||40_41|
|38 Waste collection, etc. activities; materials recovery||23, 36_37, 90_93|
|39 Other waste management services||90_93|
|41+432_439 Building construction, etc.||29, 4501+4509, 701+7022+703|
|42+431 Civil engineering, etc.||4502|
|45 Trade and repair of motor vehicles, etc.||50|
|46 Wholesale trade (excl. motor vehicles, etc.)||51|
|47 Retail trade (excl. motor vehicles, etc.)||50, 52|
|49 Land transport||60, 63|
|50 Water transport||61|
|51 Air transport||62|
|52 Warehousing and support activities for transportation||63|
|53 Postal and courier activities||641|
|56 Food and beverage service activities||55|
|58 Publishing activities||22, 642, 71_74|
|59_60 Audio-visual activities||22, 642, 90_93|
|61 Telecommunications||642, 90_93|
|64 Financial activities||65|
|65 Insurance activities||66|
|66 Activities auxiliary to financial and insurance activities||67|
|681+68209+683 Other real estate activities||701+7022+703|
|68201 Letting of dwellings||7021|
|68202 Operation of dwellings||7021|
|69 Legal and accounting activities||71_74|
|70 Activities of head offices; management consultancy||71_74|
|71 Architectural and engineering activities, etc.||71_74|
|72 Scientific research and development||71_74|
|73 Advertising and market research||71_74|
|74 Other professional, scientific and technical activities||71_74|
|75 Veterinary activities||851_852|
|77 Rental and leasing activities||71_74|
|78 Employment activities||71_74|
|79 Travel agencies, etc.||63|
|80 Security and investigation activities||71_74|
|81 Services to buildings and landscape activities||701+7022+703, 71_74, 90_93|
|82 Office administrative and other business support activities||71_74|
|841_842 Public administration||63, 71_74, 75, 90_93|
|843 Compulsory social security activities||75|
|844 Defence equipment and conscripts||75|
|845 Maintaining of railways||63|
|846 Maintaining of roads and streets||63|
|85 Education||80, 90_93|
|86 Human health activities||851_852|
|87_88 Social work activities||853|
|90_91 Cultural activities||90_93|
|92 Gambling and betting activities||90_93|
|93 Sport, amusement and recreation activities||90_93|
|94 Activities of membership organisations||90_93|
|95 Repair of household goods||36_37, 52, 71_74|
|96 Other personal service activities||90_93|
|97_98 Household service activities||95|
Last updated 14.7.2011
Official Statistics of Finland (OSF):
Annual national accounts [e-publication].
ISSN=1798-0623. 2011, Revisions in National Accounts time series, 14 July 2011 . Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 22.2.2017].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/vtp/2011/vtp_2011_2011-07-14_men_001_en.html