Concepts




Package tours (package travel, package holidays) comprise a number of tourism products which are purchased by the visitor as a single entity. Such packages usually comprise transport and accommodation, but may also include meals, coach tours, car hire, admission tickets to theaters or attractions or any other product of interest to a tourist. There is one single charge for the whole package, which is usually cheaper than the aggregated cost of the items if purchased separately.

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Paid employees comprise wage and salary earners.

Employees are converted to annual full-time employees so that, for example, an employee working half-time represents one half of a person and two employees working half-time for one year represent one annual full-time employee.

With regard to self-employed persons, the labour input of a self-employed person is the input the owner of an enterprise or his/her family member has made into the enterprise without actual remuneration. If a self-employed person takes more than half of his/her income as wages, he/she is regarded as a wage and salary earner.

For enterprises not included in the surveys of the Register of Enterprises and Establishments numbers of employees are estimated from data on wages and salaries.

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Panel calculation refers to a calculation method that is used to produce certain statistics on economic trends. If there is not enough source data for the latest examined time periods, as a rule the statistical units with comparative data for both the examined month and the corresponding month of the previous year are taken into account in the calculation. Data on this population, or panel, are used to calculate the change with which an index can be calculated for the examined point in time from the index of the corresponding point in time in the year before.

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A fine imposed for breaking prohibitions and limitations on the stopping and parking of vehicles and provisions on the use of a parking disc. Such a fine can also be imposed on grounds of unnecessary idling of motor vehicles.

These fines are imposed by the police or, if the municipality is responsible for supervision, also by a municipal parking inspector or his/her assistant. A parking offence for which a parking fine or a caution has been imposed is not registered as an offence.

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According to the Finnish constitution, the powers of the state are vested in the people who are represented by the parliament. The Finnish Parliament and consists of 200 Representatives. Representatives are elected in elections, which take place every four years. Election Day is the third Sunday of March in the election year.

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Structural statistics on wages and salaries:

In structural statistics on wages and salaries, the division into full-time and part-time employment is based on regular weekly working hours. In these statistics, employment relationships with regular weekly working hours that are more than 10 per cent shorter than the general working time in the industry are defined as part-time. It has not been possible to define employment as full-time or part-time for wage and salary earners whose regular weekly working hours are not known. This may be due to either non-reporting or irregular working hours of the person in question. For public sector teachers, full-time and part-time employment has been defined on the basis of the conditions of the employment relationship. In the structural statistics on wages and salaries, private sector teachers whose weekly teaching duty is less than 16 hours are defined as working part-time.

Statistics on private sector wages and salaries:

For private sector monthly wage and salary earners, the definition of part-time employment is generally based on weekly working hours, as in the structural statistics of wages and salaries. In these statistics, wage and salary earners whose regular weekly working hours are over 10 per cent shorter than the general working time in the industry are defined as working part-time.

Information on other wage and salary earners' part-time employment is obtained through inquiries or defined according to the employment relationship. If a wage and salary earner's regular weekly working hours are not known, also information on earnings is used to define part-time employment.

The division between full-time and part-time employment is not made separately for private sector hourly wage earners.

Statistics on public sector wages and salaries:

For public sector wage and salary earners, full-time and part-time employment is defined on the basis of the character and conditions of the employment relationship. Information on full-time and part-time employment is usually obtained through inquiries.

Labour cost survey:

In statistics on labour cost, an employee whose working hours are shorter than the working hours specified in the collective agreement for government employees or the collective agreement, or the general working time of the unit in question, is defined as working part-time.

Cf. Full-time

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n the statistics on special education in comprehensive schools, part-time special education refers to teaching pupils can have beside other teaching if they have difficulties in learning or school attendance. Pupils can receive part-time special education also during intensified or special support.

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In the statistics on university and university of applied sciences education, the statistical definition of tertiary full-time and part-time studying is based on the number of completed credits. The data on numbers of completed credits derive from data collected by Statistics Finland on credits completed in the previous year. The data on credits are collected from all universities and university of applied sciences. Students having completed 20 or more credits during the academic year are classified s full-time students while students having completed fewer than 20 credits are classified as part-time students. All students having registered as absent are classified as part-time students.

First-year students do not yet have credits, so they are regarded as full-time students in the academic year concerned. Due to the nature of studies, data on the credits of students completing higher university degrees (licentiate, doctorate, medical specialist, veterinary specialist, dental specialist and students completing further university of applied sciences degrees) are not descriptive of full-timeness of studies. In computerised calculation of numbers of full-time and part-time students, all students studying for higher tertiary degrees are classified as part-time students.

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Employees or self-employed persons who report they work part-time in their main job are classified as part-time workers. The definition is not based on any hour limits, but on the respondent's own idea of the work being part-time.

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In the statistics on adult education of educational institutions participants in education refer to participants in adult education provided during the calendar year. The same person may have participated (during the same year) in a number of educational programmes in an educational institution, so the number of participants does not correspond to the number of person having participated in education.

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The purpose of the Adult Education Survey was to study participation in all organised education and training and not only that specifically arranged for adults. Similarly, with the notion of life-long learning in mind, respondents were asked about what was the highest basic educational qualification they had obtained during their whole life and to what extent they had taken part in training arranged in connection with their work or occupation and in education and training courses abroad. Efforts were then made to determine more precisely the participation of the adult education and training during the reference period for twelve months preceding the interview.

Education was taken for the present purposes to comprise all studies that had lasted for at least six hours overall, including study periods or courses that had not been completed, if the respondent had taken part for at least that length of time. All activities specifically arranged and organised for the purpose of bringing about learning were regarded as education. It was also required that these activities should have had a pre-arranged curriculum or syllabus and that there should have been a specific provider or organiser responsible for the arrangements. Information sessions, advertising campaigns, sales drives and meetings were not regarded as forms of education.

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Particulate matter sized under 2.5 and 10 micrometer per diameter. These tiny particles are released in burning processes, traffic and some industrial processes. Particulate matter have adverse health effects.

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A party is an association which has been registered in the register of political parties maintained by the Ministry of Justice. Parties are voluntary associations whose main purpose is to influence the handling of the affairs of the state. Membership is usually gained through the party's local association.

In May 2005 the register of political parties comprised 19 political parties.

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Investments where a domestic investment enterprise receives capital from a foreign direct investor and then reinvests it in its own direct investment enterprises abroad. The same pass-through investment item increases both inward and outward foreign direct investments. When pass-through investments are negative, foreign investors have unwound their foreign investments channelled through Finland, which decreases both Finland's inward and outward direct investments.

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A vehicle manufactured for the transport of people. Space for no more than 8 persons in addition to the driver.

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In the Balance of Payments passenger transportation services cover all services provided - between the compiling economy and abroad or between two foreign economies - in the international transportation of non-residents by resident carriers (credit) and that of residents by non-resident carriers (debit). Excluded are passenger services provided to non-residents by resident carriers within the resident economies; these are included in travel. In addition to the services covered by passenger fares - including fares that are a part of package tours - passenger services include such items as charges for excess baggage, vehicles, or other personal accompanying effects and expenditure on food, drink, or other items on which passengers make expenditures while on board carriers.

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A passenger-kilometre is a measurement unit describing the passenger carrying performance of some means of transport such as a passenger car, coach, train, boat, aircraft or any transport vehicle suited for the transporting of passengers. Two persons travelling five kilometres on board a vehicle generate ten passenger-kilometres. Transport kilometres multiplied by average number of passengers.

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A patent is a prohibition right. A patent is a right held by the patent owner to prohibit others from commercially exploiting his or her invention. Commercial exploitation includes the manufacture, sale, use and imports of the patented product or use of the patented process (cf. Patent Act, Section 3).

The patent right is territorially defined, applying in those countries in which the patent was applied for and granted. The right is valid for a limited period of time, generally no more than 20 years from the filing date of the application. The right is only valid if the patent is in force. Annual renewal fees must be paid for the patent to remain in effect.

The patent protects the invention or inventions that are specified in the patent claims. The description of the invention can be used to interpret the claims.

The invention may be for instance a new process, appliance, product or new application of such. One patent application may include claims falling into all these categories, as long as they are based on a single inventive concept.

A product claim protects the product regardless of how it is made or used. A process claim protects both the process specified in it and the product made using it, whether or not the patent contains a product claim. A new use of an existing product may also be patented.

The invention to be patented must be new, and it must be an invention that can be used in industry. When patentability is being assessed, the definition of the claims is compared with what was previously known. The time limit is the filing date (or the priority date). Patentability is determined by all factors that were known before the filing date (cf. Patent Act, Section 2).

In practice, an invention is considered new if a decision on its patent claims has not been delivered anywhere else, either in Finland or in another country.

Industrial applicability essentially means that the invention solves some technical problem or that it is expected to have a technical effect or impact. Section 1 of the Patent Act lists inventions that as such are not regarded as susceptible of industrial application and patentable, even though they may be new and inventive.

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The Tax Administration's payment control data contain monthly information concerning payments of value added tax and employer's contributions. The observation unit is an enterprise. The payment control data cover all monthly monitored enterprises liable to value added tax and employers paying regular wages, in other words, almost the entire entrepreneurial activity in Finland. Prior to 2010 the index calculation is performed with the payment control data on value added tax and employer contributions.

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Comprises following fuel classification categories:
- Milled peat (2110)
- Sod peat (2120)
- Peat pellets and briquettes (2130).

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A person travelling on foot, roller skates, skateboard, skis, kick-sledge or similar.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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A penalty payment is set by imposing the primary obligation to be abided by the complainant at risk of a fine. A different penalty payment must be imposed to reinforce each primary obligation. An official having imposed the penalty payment may sentence the penalty payment to be paid if the primary obligation has not been abided by and no valid reason is given for not abiding by it. (Act on penalty payments 1113/1990).

In the statistics, a person sentenced to a penalty payment is included in the group “found guilty”.

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An enforcement matter becomes pending when the enforcement application arrives at the local enforcement authority or in the Enforcement Information System. When the enforcement has arrived at the enforcement authority the authority must notify the debtor of the pendency without delay.

The pendency of an enforcement matter relating to a payment liability ends when the bailiff remits the collected funds (closing remittance). If full payment has not been collected for the receivable (impediment for lack of means) or if the whereabouts of the debtor are unknown (impediment of lack of means and unknown whereabouts), a certificate to this effect must be issued to the applicant. The pendency of the enforcement matter ends on the date of issue of the impediment certificate. When bankruptcy proceedings are initiated, an enforcement matter relating to a payment liability that cannot be enforced because of the bankruptcy remains pending at most for six months following the initiation of the bankruptcy proceedings.

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In Statistics Finland statistics, pending restructuring cases refer to restructuring petitions concerning enterprises, corporations, estates of deceased persons or private individuals filed during the calendar year.

The first business structuring petition filed in the calendar year is recorded in the statistics as a pending restructuring case. Several creditors may file a business restructuring petition concerning the same enterprise during a year, but only the first petition is recorded in the statistics as a pending restructuring case. The number of petitions is always higher than the number of pending restructuring cases in these statistics.

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This category also includes insurance and unemployment funds.

A pension foundation is an insurance or pension company set up by an employer for the purpose of provision of statutory or voluntary pensions or comparable benefits for its employees and their beneficiaries.

A pension fund is an industry-specific insurance fund for administering corresponding pensions and benefits.

Besides pension foundations and funds, this category of legal form also includes some other pension companies based on separate employment pension acts. Employment pension insurance companies administering pension schemes of the type of described above (e.g. Ilmarinen, Varma) come under the legal form of mutual insurance company or are limited companies.

Besides pension funds, there are also other insurance funds (previously known as benevolent funds) which grant financial aid or administer other social personal insurance schemes. Examples of these include burial funds and redundancy funds.

An unemployment fund is a corporation operating on the mutual liability principle for the purpose of organising for its members the compensation for loss of earnings referred to in the Unemployment Security Act.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Per cent means one hundredth of something. Percentage point is used when comparing percentages to one another. For example, when inflation drops from three to two per cent, inflation decreases by one percentage point and 33.3 per cent.

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This figure indicates how many per cent of all offences which become known during a statistical year consist of offences solved. Therefore the figure may be higher than 100.

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Performance-related pay is a general designation for various items paid on top of pay based on results and profits. They can be divided into main types, which are called performance bonus, profit bonus and profit distribution item. Performance payment does not here include various share and incentive stock option arrangements.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Period work is a working time balancing system where daily or weekly working hours may exceed the maximum number of hours prescribed in law (8 h per day or 40 h per week), but the number of working hours is balanced off within a certain longer time period.

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The Tax Administration's periodic tax return data contain monthly and quarterly information concerning the payment of employer contributions and in respect of the payment of value added tax also yearly data. The observation unit is an enterprise. The periodic tax return data cover all enterprises and employers paying wages which the tax account reform concerns, in other words, almost the entire entrepreneurial activity in Finland. Starting from 2010, the periodic tax return data containing information about payments of value added tax and employer contributions are used in the calculation of the index.

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A periodical is a magazine published regularly, at least four times a year, which contains articles dealing with either the general or a specific sphere of life. Periodicals also include those journals in the form of newspapers which do not fulfil the criteria for a newspaper with regard to their content or frequency, e.g. trade union magazines.

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This category consists of perpetual debt securities. It is characteristic of perpetuals that the debtor is committed to pay interest at a specified rate, usually linked to money market interest rates but not to repay the loan principal. A perpetual is a bond no part of which is repaid and which has no maturity date but which pays regular interest.

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A person who has not died in an accident (or within 30 days of it), but has sustained in the accident injuries which require medical care or observation in hospital, treatment at home (sick leave) or surgical treatment, such as stitches. If a person has sustained bruises, scratches or the like that do not require aforementioned treatment, he/she is not regarded as injured.

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Persons involved in an accident refer to the drivers of vehicles and pedestrians involved in an accident, and passengers killed or injured in the accident. An animal is party to an accident involving animals.

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A person who has died as a consequence of an accident within 30 days from the accidents, excluding deaths from acute fits of illness.

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Audiovisual services, artistic services, education services, health services, heritage and recreational services and other personal services. Services associated with the production of motion pictures, radio and television programmes and musical recordings. Renting of audiovisual products and related products and fees for watching rights to encrypted television channels, mass-produced audiovisual products sold to continuous use, which are supplied electronically, fees received by performing artists, writers, composers, etc. Services supplied between resident and non-resident actors relating to education, such as correspondence courses and education via television or the Internet, as well as teachers or the like, who supply services direct in host economies. Services provided by doctors, nurses and public health nurses and corresponding professionals, as well as laboratory and corresponding services rendered either remotely or on-site. Services related to museums and other cultural, sports, gambling and recreational activities except for services involving persons outside the national economy where resident. Social work activities, domestic services by paid staff and so on.

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Personnel costs are made up of wages and salaries and employer's social security costs.
Payments for agency workers are not included in personnel costs.
All remunerations paid to the personnel during the accounting period are included, incl. all gratuities, workplace and performance bonuses, ex gratia payments, 13th month pay (and similar fixed bonuses), payments made to employees in consideration of dismissal, lodging, transport, cost of living, and family allowances, commissions, attendance fees, overtime, night work, etc., as well as taxes, social security contributions and other amounts owed by the employees and retained at source by the employers.
Also included are the social security costs of the employer. These include employer's social security contributions to schemes for retirement pensions, sickness, maternity, disability, unemployment, occupational accidents and diseases, family allowances as well as other schemes. These costs are included regardless of whether they are statutory, collectively agreed, contractual or voluntary in nature.

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Personnel expenditure of educational institutions comprises the personnel expenditure of pre-primary education, comprehensive education, upper secondary general education, vocational education, university of applied sciences education, university education, university research and other education (for definition of other education see the concept consumption expenditure of the school system).

Personnel expenditure of educational institutions includes wages, salaries and fees, and pension and social insurance contributions of educational institutions' teaching, administrative and support function personnel.

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Wages, salaries and rewards, pension expenses and other employer contributions = Personnel expenses

Personnel expenses comprise wages and salaries subject to withholding of tax and comparable expenses, as well as expenses determined direct based on wage or salary, such as social security contributions, statutory and voluntary personal insurance contributions and pension expenses.

Other voluntary personnel expenses come under other operating expenses.

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A personnel fund is a fund owned and controlled by a company's or agency's personnel and is intended to function as a rewarding mechanism for the personnel and thereby improve the personnel's work motivation and promote the company's success and competitiveness. The task of the personnel fund is to manage the profit bonus items and other assets referred to in the Act on Personnel Funds (814/1989) and paid to it by that company or agency as well as to pay out the members' shares of the fund.

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The fund's by-laws may provide for part of the profit bonus items and the fund profit to be transferred to the fund's joint capital to be used for educational and other purposes for the benefit of the members. A transfer provision applies equally to shares in profit bonuses earned by persons who have become members of the personnel fund under section 14a in the Act on Personnel Funds (814/1989). The fund's by-laws may restrict a member's right to avail himself of membership benefits that have been acquired through the employment of the fund's joint capital, if he exercises his right under section 17a to withdraw his profit bonus share in cash.

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The personnel fund's equity comprises the members' capital and other fund capital.

The members' capital includes the capital that is added to the members' fund units and any revaluations that have been made in investment of this capital.

Any profits or losses made by the fund may be added to the members' capital and other fund capital in the manner described in section 22 in the Act on Personnel Funds (814/1989).

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An employed person who was at work at least on one day in the survey week is counted as being at work. An employed person who was temporarily absent from work during the whole survey week because of holiday, sickness or lay-off period, for example, is counted as not being at work.

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Persons not in the labour force consist of those who were not employed or unemployed during the survey week. Persons not in the labour force can also be called those outside the labour force.

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The statistics include data on those convicted in courts of first instance. Courts of first instance are generally district courts and in some cases courts of appeal are also courts of first instance.

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Persons working in the area refers to all persons who go to work in the area concerned irrespective of their place of residence. Persons working in the area form the so-called employed day population, the size of which can be regarded as a measure of the number of workplaces in the area.

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Petajoule (PJ) is a unit of energy used for expressing the energy contents of fuels and other energy sources. 1 PJ = 1,000 TJ; 1 TJ = 0.278 GWh

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A petitionary matter is a matter in which a court's authorisation is requested for some action or the listing of some action into a public register. A petitionary matter is instituted by way of petition or notification. Petitionary matters are resolved at the office of a district court if no-one opposes the petition or, if the parties disagree, in a district court hearing.

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Participates in some physical exercise hobby at least once a week.

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In the statistics on special education in comprehensive schools, for pupils with a decision on special support the places of implementation of teaching are from 2011 as follows:
1. All teaching is provided in a general education group.
2. 51 to 99 per cent of teaching is provided in a general education group.
3. 21 to 50 per cent of teaching is provided in a general education group.
4. 1 to 20 per cent of teaching is provided in a general education group.
5. All teaching is provided in special groups or classes.

In 2001 to 2010, the concept "place of provision of special education" corresponds to the concept "place of implementation of special education".

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In the statistics on special education, the places of provision of special education were in 2001 to 2010 as follows:
1. All teaching is provided in a general education group: pupils are fully integrated into groups attending general education.
2. Teaching is partially provided in a general education group: pupils study partly in special classes or groups and partly in groups attending general education.
3. Special groups, special classes: pupils study in special groups or classes.

From 2011 onwards, the concept "place of implementation of special education" corresponds to the concept "place of provision of special education".

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There are several definitions for this concept

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A party who brings a civil matter to court. The term may also be used for an injured party who institutes the private prosecution of a criminal matter in court.

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In the real estate price statistics plots for detached houses or unbuilt plots for detached houses are defined on the basis of the land register with the following conditions: The purpose of use of the real estate is a residential building plot and it has no buildings. The real estate must neither be situated in a shore plan area. If the real estate is in a building plan or town plan area it is also required that the quality of the plan is residential detached area, the register has information about the permitted building volume and the building efficiency coefficient is under 0.5. In sparsely-populated areas the last condition cannot be checked because the quality of the plan and the permitted building volume have not been defined in the plan areas in question.

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Point figure is a change quantity used in price indices, which expresses the price, average price or index of the comparison period relative to the price, average price or index of the base period. The point figure of the base period is usually denoted by the number hundred. For example, if the point figure for a commodity at a certain point in time is 105.3, it means that the price of that commodity has risen by 5.3 per cent from the base period.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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The population projection method used by Statistics Finland is a so-called demographic component model where the future number and structure of the population are calculated by age group by means of age group-specific fertility, mortality and migration coefficients. The coefficients are calculated on the basis of population development in the last few years. The projection does not seek to estimate the effect of economic, socio-political regional policy and other such factors on population development.

Statistics Finland's population projection is a demographic trend calculation where population development is assumed to continue as in the last few years. Municipal population projections are made by Statistics Finland every three years.

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Portfolio investment is considered to include securities transactions not belonging to direct investment and reserve assets. Portfolio investment refers to securities transactions in which the ownership or voting power after the investment remains below 10%. As securities transactions are valued at market prices, capital gains realised in connection with a change of ownership are reflected in valuation adjustments between stocks and flows.

Securities traded are divided into equity and debt securities. Equity securities are shares, participations and mutual fund shares. Debt securities include bonds and money market paper.

Income generated from mutual funds' share holdings are divided into profits (dividends) and reinvested earnings. Reinvested earnings are included in the security investments in the financial account while profits (dividends) are included in the primary income in the current account.

Data on security investments are collected in the inquiry on foreign financial assets and liabilities and from data collections carried out by the Bank of Finland. The Bank of Finland collects data by security and in their classification use is made of the European Central Bank's centralised database on securities, which contains basic data on nearly all securities under active trading globally.

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The post code area usually refers to the area covered by one post office which is identified by a 5-digit post code. Post code areas are independent of administrative regional divisions, i.e. the same post code area may extend across municipal boundaries.

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A postal address is the address to which an enterprise or a quasicorporate unit wishes to have its postal items delivered. A postal address is comprised of a street address (name and number of street/road) or a post office box number and a postal area code and name of post office.

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Postal and courier services cover the despatch, delivery and collection of letters, parcels, periodicals, etc., as well as poste restante services, sales of stamps and administration of money orders.

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A postal item refers to an object or message equipped with the name and address of its recipient which the sender has left to a postal service provider for delivery through regular postal transportation as a postal item referred to in the Postal Services Act.

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Postal operations refer to the conveyance of postal items from the sender of the post or from another postal undertaking to the recipient of the post or to another postal undertaking against a fee.

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In the statistics on comprehensive school education and special education, pre-primary education refers to the education of pupils enrolled as pre-primary school pupils in comprehensive schools. Pre-primary education is education intended for children aged six who will be starting comprehensive education in the following year. In addition to pre-primary classes of comprehensive schools, pre-primary education is also provided in children's day care centres. Attendance of pre-primary education is voluntary. Pre-primary pupils also include special support receiving pupils that are in extended compulsory education.

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In the statistics on vocational education, preparatory education for further vocational qualifications means education that is adult education and prepares for an examination for a further vocational qualification. A further vocational qualification is always obtained by passing a skills examination. A further vocational qualification can also be obtained without attending preparatory education. In an examination for a further vocational qualification the examinee demonstrate that he/she possesses the vocational skills required of a skilled worker.

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In the statistics on vocational education, preparatory education for specialist vocational qualifications means education that is adult education and prepares for an examination for a specialist vocational qualification. A specialist vocational qualification is always obtained by passing a skills examination. A specialist vocational qualification can also be obtained without attending preparatory education. In an examination for a specialist vocational qualification the students demonstrates command of the most demanding tasks in the field concerned.

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In the statistics on vocational education, preparatory initial vocational education for a skills examination refers to education in which the aim is the attainment of a vocational qualification by means of a skills examination. The scope of studies for all initial qualifications is 120 credits, or three years. If a qualification is obtained by passing a skills examination the scope can be less extensive than this as the student's previous skills are taken into consideration. A skills examination can be passed without attending preparatory education for it by demonstrating in skills tests the knowledge and skills required for the attainment of vocational skills.

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Initial, further and specialist vocational qualifications can be obtained through skills examinations irrespective of the way vocational skills have been acquired. As a rule the qualifications are attained in connection with preparatory education for a skills examination. The providers of the education are obliged to organise the skills examinations as part of the preparatory education.

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According to the Finnish Constitution (section 54) the President of the Republic is elected by a direct vote for a term of six years. The President shall be a native-born Finnish citizen. The candidate who receives more than half of the votes cast in the election shall be elected President. If none of the candidates has received a majority of the votes cast, a new election shall be held between the two candidates who have received most votes. In the new election, the candidate receiving the most votes is elected President.

The first round of the Presidential election shall be held on the third Sunday of January of the sixth year after the year in which the previous President of the Republic was inaugurated. If a second round of elections is required, this shall be held on the second Sunday after the first round of Presidential elections.

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If a person sentenced to unconditional imprisonment, a monitoring sentence or community service is charged with another offence committed before the sentence was passed, the court may deem that the previous sentence is a sufficient sanction also for the act which was later taken up for a hearing. (Criminal Code, Chapter 7, Sections 6 to 7).

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Price discrimination implies that sellers may be in a position to charge different prices to different categories of purchasers for identical goods and services sold under exactly the same circumstances. In these cases, there is no or limited freedom of choice on the part of a purchaser belonging to a special category. The principle adopted is that variations in price are to be regarded as price discrimination when different prices are charged for identical units sold under exactly the same circumstances in a clearly separable market. Price variations due to such discrimination do not constitute differences in volume.

In service industries, for example in transportation, producers may charge lower prices to groups of individuals with typically lower incomes, such as pensioners or students. If these are free to travel at whatever time they choose, this must be treated as a price discrimination. However, if they are charged lower fares on condition that they travel only at certain times, typically off-peak times, they are being offered lower-quality transportation. If price variations are a sign of differences in quality, the variations should be reflected in variations in volume and not in prices.

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The price indices of public expenditure (PIPE) measure the development of prices in the expenditure of central and local governments. The indices have been used for decision-making about central and local government finances, and for diverse studies. The indices are suitable for calculations at constant prices, and for estimations of volume changes in the public economy and expenditure.

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The price level index indicates the price levels of different countries relative to a chosen country or a country group (e.g. Finland =100, EU27 =100). If the price level index of a country is higher than 100, the country is more expensive than average, and vice versa. The price level index is derived by dividing the purchasing power parity by the exchange rate of the euro and the monetary unit of the country concerned.

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In the accommodation statistics of Statistics Finland price per overnight indicates the average price per overnight stay (VAT included), i.e. the average price a customer has paid for one night spent in an accommodation establishment.

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The dwelling price statistics utilise the unencumbered price per square metre, which means that the loan portion is included in the price. The price concept published is price per square metre (€/m2).

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There are several definitions for this concept

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All enterprises and establishments proper are separately assigned an economic activity at the most detailed level of the industrial classification.

In the Business Register, the principal activity of an enterprise is defined according to the value added created at its establishments engaged in different economic activities. Value added corresponds closely to value of secondary processing. The value added for the economic activities of an enterprise is obtained by multiplying the number of employees in each establishment by the average value added it creates in its activity and by proportioning the obtained figure to the duration of its activity in the accounting period within the statistical year. Principal activity is defined in stages from the section level to the most detailed level of the standard industrial classification. The principal activity of an enterprise is usually determined by the industry of the establishment that generates most value added during an accounting period.

The principal activity of an enterprise can change, for example, as a consequence of incorporation, when a significant part of the enterprise becomes independent from the point of total value added.

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In the statistics, data are presented on the principal offence on which the sentence is based. According to the rule, each person accused, convicted or fined with a summary penal judgment is most often described by the most serious offence under the severest punishment decision category of the court.

The concept of a principal offence is defined in detail in the quality description of the statistics.

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The Prison Tribunal is an administrative body deciding on the incarceration of dangerous recidivists and the enforcement of custodial sentences passed on young offenders. The Prison Tribunal is not a court of justice.

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A sentence of imprisonment is passed either for a fixed period or for life. A sentence of fixed-term imprisonment is imposed for at least fourteen days and at most twelve years or, when imposing a joint sentence pursuant to Chapter 7, for fifteen years. A court of justice will impose a punishment within the sentence scale set by the legislator for each offence. When imposing a sentence of imprisonment, years, months and days are used as the units of time. Sentences of less than three months are imposed in days. A year includes 365 days and a month 30 days. (Criminal Code, Chapter 2c). In the tables, average prison terms are given in months, except for community service which is also given in hours.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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A prisoner in preventive detention is a dangerous recidivist, whom the Prison Tribunal has ordered confined in preventive detention. Preventive detention is a separate institution or a department in an institution, which has been ordered for the purpose by the Ministry of Justice.

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Private receivables are receivables based on agreements, commitments or other liabilities under private law. Examples of these include bank loans, other credits, purchase money claims, fees or payments for services and work performances, insurance premiums, guarantee liabilities and indemnity liabilities.

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In the Labour Force Survey the employer sector is determined on the basis of the information on the job or enterprise in the Business Register. The classification differs to some extent from that used in the National Accounts. The private sector comprises those whose employer is a company (including companies owned by the state or municipality), a private person, an enterprise, a foundation, a co-operative or an association, and those who are self-employed or own-account workers. Non-profit institutions, such as the church and parishes, are also included in the private sector.

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Private tourist accommodation comprises forms of accommodation that do not conform to the definition of collective tourism establishments. These provide a limited number of bed-places for rent or free of charge. Each accommodation unit (room, dwelling) is independent and occupied by tourists, usually for a week, fortnight or month or by its owner as a second or holiday home.

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The probability of death at some age x refers to the probability of a person living until the age of x to die during that year of age.

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A process innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved production process, delivery method, or support activity for an enterprise's goods or services.

The process (production process, delivery method or support activity) must be new to the enterprise or significantly improved from its point of view, but it does not have to be new to the sector or market the enterprise operates in. The developer of the innovation can be the enterprise in question or other enterprises.

Purely organisational innovations are not considered process innovations.

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The price received by an enterprise for its commodity or service.

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Producer price index for manufactured products measures development in the producer prices of goods manufactured in Finland. The index includes both goods sold at home and exported goods. The price for domestic goods is the factory price exclusive of taxes and the price for export goods is the f.o.b. price. The index covers commodities of industry categories B to E.

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Producer price indices for services describe the price development in business services provided by enterprises to other enterprises and the public sector.

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The price received by farmers for their agricultural products without value added taxes and subsidies on productions on farms or in the first stage of the marketing chain.

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A product innovation refers to a new or essentially improved good or service brought to market by an enterprise. A new or significantly improved good or service differs from previously produced goods or services with respect to its characteristics (e.g. significant improvements in technical specifications, components and materials, incorporated software, user friendliness or other functional characteristics).

The good or service must be new to the enterprise or significantly improved from its point of view, but it does not have to be new to the market the enterprise operates in. The developer of the innovation can be the enterprise in question or other enterprises.

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Production based on environmental pollution prevention may include products, technologies or techniques, or services which deal with damage to the air, soil and water, and problems related to waste, noise, biodiversity and natural landscapes. Such production may consist of, or be connected to, activity which involves measuring, monitoring, prevention, treatment, repair, research, development or awareness raising.

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Production based on saving natural resources may include products, technologies or techniques, or services which focus on the saving of natural resources and their effective use either in the production process or utilisation process. Such production may consist of, or be connected to, activity which involves measuring, monitoring, prevention, reduction of use, re-use, recycling, repair, restoration, research, development or awareness raising.

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The production boundary included in national accounts is essential for defining the coverage of the accounting system.

Production is an activity carried out under the control and responsibility of an institutional unit that uses inputs of labour, capital and goods and services to produce goods and services. Production does not cover purely natural processes without any human involvement or direction, like the unmanaged growth of fish stocks in international waters (but fish farming is production).

Production includes:

a) the production of all individual or collective goods or services that are supplied to units other than their producers (or intended to be so supplied);
b) the own-account production of all goods that are retained by their producers for their own final consumption or gross fixed capital formation. Own account production for gross fixed capital formation includes the production of fixed assets such as construction, research and development activities, the development of software and mineral exploration for own gross fixed capital formation.

Own-account production of goods by households pertains in general to:
(1) own-account construction of dwellings;
(2) the production and storage of agricultural products;
(3) the processing of agricultural products, like the production of flour by milling, the preservation of fruit by drying and bottling; the production of dairy products like butter and cheese and the production of beer, wine and spirits;
(4) the production of other primary products, like mining salt, cutting peat and carrying water;
(5) other kinds of processing, like weaving cloth, the production of pottery and making furniture.

Own-account production of a good by households should be recorded if this type of production is significant, i.e. if it is believed to be quantitatively important in relation to the total supply of that good in a country.

By convention, in the ESA, only own-account construction of dwellings and the production, storage and processing of agricultural products is included; all other own-account production of goods by households are deemed to be insignificant for EU countries.

c) the own-account production of housing services by owner-occupiers;
d) domestic and personal services produced by employing paid domestic staff;
e) volunteer activities that result in goods, e.g. the construction of a dwelling, church or other building are to be recorded as production. Volunteer activities that do not result in goods, e.g. caretaking and cleaning without payment, are excluded.

All such activities are included even if they are illegal or not-registered at tax, social security, statistical and other public authorities.

Production excludes the production of domestic and personal services that are produced and consumed within the same household (with the exception of employing paid domestic staff and the services of owner-occupied dwellings). Cases in point are:
a) cleaning, decoration and maintenance of the dwelling as far as these activities are also common for tenants;
b) cleaning, servicing and repair of household durables;
c) preparation and serving of meals;
d) care, training and instruction of children;
e) care of sick, infirm or old people;
f) transportation of members of the household or their goods.

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Production intended for sale includes all production manufactured for sale by the establishment in the calendar year regardless of whether production is sold or stored for later sale.

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A farm's production line is determined on the basis of those products that account for 65 percent of the total sales income from livestock and crop production as well as subsidiary production income. In cases where income data are lacking, the production line has been determined based on the information in the rural business register.

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Since 1997, the classification of commodity headings referred to in the statistics on manufacturing commodities has been based on the PRODCOM classification of industrial production of the European Union updated annually. The PRODCOM classification contains 8-digit product headings.

It does not include all product groups, for which reason it is supplemented with additional national headings. Some of the PRODCOM headings are also divided into national subheadings. The national product heading codes comprise 10 digits. The first four digits of the codes correspond to the code of the standard industrial classification of the European Communities (NACE Rev. 2) and thus to the first four digits of Statistics Finland's industrial classification TOL 2008. The first six digits of the code correspond to the Classification of Products by Activity (CPA) of the European Communities.

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Waste generated in different industries in connection with production and the opposite to consumption waste, which primarily comprise municipal waste and waste comparable to it. Production waste is usually characteristic to each industry and its volumes vary considerably. Examples of production waste include all waste from manufacturing processes and waste stone from mining and quarrying. As in other industries, both production and consumption waste is generated in the production of services, although the majority of it tends to be consumption waste.

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Under the Act on Personnel Funds (814/1989), a "profit bonus item" is a sum of money which is substantially determined in a company from the operating profit according to an income statement or comparable internal accounting calculation, plus depreciation, or from an item after that calculation, indicating the profitability of operations and possibly from other indicators of the company's operating efficiency, and in a government agency from bonuses in accordance with its bonus system.

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Project deliveries may include turnkey deliveries of machines, production equipment and industrial plants, including installation and assembly of machines and other related construction work.

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The outstanding balance on promissory notes granted by financial institutions from depository assets (or by insurance corporations from insurance funds) or from equity capital. Loans granted by institutions supervised by the Finnish Centre for Pensions are also included, as are interest subsidy loans, and, in the case of insurance corporations, non-mandatory lending as well as relending to employers and policy-holders.

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The outstanding balance on promissory notes extended by financial institutions from depository assets (or by insurance corporations from insurance funds) or from equity capital. Loans granted by institutions supervised by the Finnish Centre for Pensions are also included, as are interest subsidy loans, and, in the case of insurance corporations, non-mandatory lending as well as relending to employers and policy-holders.

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The propensity for internal migration, or the rate of internal migration, refers to the number of migrants per 1,000 of the mean population in the area of departure. The propensity for internal migration in some age group indicates the migrants per 1,000 of the mean population in the age group in question.

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Property expenditure and income (D.4) are generated when the owners of financial assets or natural resources give such assets to other institutional units for use. Income generated from the use of financial assets is called in-vestment income while the income from the use of natural resources is rent. Property income is the total sum of investment income and rents. Property income is classified as follows:

a) Interest (D.41);
b) Distributed income of corporations (D.42):
1) Dividends (D.421);
2) Withdrawals from income of quasi-corporations (D.422);
c) Reinvested earnings on direct foreign investment (D.43);
d) Other investment income (D.44):
1) Investment income attributable to policyholders in insurance (D.441);
2) Investment income based on pension entitlements (D.442);
3) Investment income from collective mutual funds belonging to sharehold-ers (D.443);
e) Land and natural resource rents (D.45).

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There are several definitions for this concept

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Percentage proportion of overtime hours of all hours actually worked.

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The proportion of stillbirths refers to the number of stillborn children per 1,000 liveborn and stillborn children.

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In proportional elections each party (or other group) gains representative seats in relation to the number of votes cast for it compared with the votes cast for other groups. If, for instance, a party gains 20 per cent of the votes cast, it should also gain 20 per cent of the available seats.

Presidential elections are not proportional, as the votes are cast for individual candidates and not for parties.

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A prosecutor is a state official, whose task it is to see to it that the proper statutory sanction is attached to a criminal act. The local prosecuting authorities in Finland are district prosecutors. The state prosecutor acts as the prosecutor in criminal cases that have the most significance to the society. The state prosecutor has jurisdiction over the whole country. The duties of the supreme public prosecutor are exercised by the Prosecutor General, who heads the Office of the Prosecutor General. The Prosecutor General is the supervisor of all prosecutors.

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In the statistics on providers of education and educational institutions and in the statistics on vocational education, providers of education refer to bodies entrusted with the task of providing education. The task of provision of education is defined in law (comprehensive school education) or in a licence to provide education or maintain an educational institution granted by the Ministry of Education or similar public authority. Providers or education are usually municipalities, joint municipal boards, or private corporations or foundations. Statistics Finland has assigned an individual system ID for each provider of education.

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Provinces are regional administrative units of the State. In provinces Provincial State Offices act as general administrative authorities and have other separately stipulated duties. Provincial State Offices are in charge of tasks related to justice, rescue services and police, education and culture, agriculture and forestry, transport, consumer, competition, food, social welfare and health and sports and youth affairs.

From 1 September 1997 the number of provinces reduced to six. The division into provinces is prescribed in the Act on Provincial State Offices 1997/22 issued in January 1997. Government decision of 121/1997 passed in January 1997 specified the areas of provinces and the locations and names of the Provincial State Offices. In accordance with the Government resolution (6 February 1997) on harmonisation of Finnish regional classifications, the division into regional councils is also used as the basis for the new division into provinces.

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As far as possible the volume index of industrial output is calculated using volume data obtained from establishments. However, in some cases an establishment may not be able provide data on the volume of its output. In these cases, the establishment is asked for data on some other variables describing output, in other words proxy variables, that are considered as indicative of its volume. Examples of proxy variables include hours worked, raw materials consumed or value of output.

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Transactions made by general government (excl. international organisations) concerning goods and services which cannot be classified under other items.

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Public corporations comprise all economic units implementing public administration in Finland: central and local government, administration of joint municipal boards and the Regional administration of Åland.

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Non-financial corporations and quasi-corporations which are subject to control by government units and whose principal activity is market-oriented production of goods and services. An enterprise is under public control, if, for example, government units own at least 50 per cent of the share or co-operative capital either directly or indirectly, or they have the right to determine corporate policy and to appoint the directors.

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Public receivables are receivables of municipalities and other public corporations. Examples of these include charges for health care, children's day care and fees for the performances of municipal authorities, such as permits, registrations, inspections and control.

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In the Labour Force Survey the employer sector is determined on the basis of the information on the job or enterprise in the Business Register. The classification differs to some extent from that used in the National Accounts. The public sector includes central and local government. The central government sector includes state administration, universities, the Social Insurance Institution, the Bank of Finland and unincorporated central government enterprises. The local government sector includes municipalities and joint municipal authorities. Municipalities and joint municipal authorities comprise the municipal administration, the municipal school system, as well as the unincorporated service institutions and agencies of the municipalities and joint municipal authorities, such as health centres, hospitals, day-care centres and unincorporated enterprises.

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The general punishments (which can be imposed on anyone subject to the Criminal Code) are summary penal fine, fine, conditional imprisonment, community service, monitoring sentence and unconditional imprisonment.

Juvenile punishment is a specific sentence for offenders under the age of 18. Special punishments for public officials are warning and dismissal from office. Disciplinary punishments for soldiers are warning, confinement to barracks, disciplinary fine, extra duties and detention.

A corporation, foundation or other legal entity may be sentenced to a corporate fine.

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In the statistics on comprehensive school education, on subject choices of students and on special education, comprehensive school pupils refer to all pupils registered at comprehensive schools: pupils of pre-primary education, pupils of grades 1 to 9 and pupils of additional education (10th class).

Data on the number of comprehensive school pupils describe the situation on 20 September.

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Purchased materials and supplies refer to raw materials, semi-finished products, additional materials and supplies purchased from outside the enterprise for production in the calendar year. The value and volume are inquired.

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The purchaser’s price is the price the purchaser actually pays for the products; including any taxes less subsidies on the products (but excluding deductible taxes like VAT on the products); including any transport charges paid separately by the purchaser to take delivery at the required time and place; after deductions for any discounts for bulk or off-peak-purchases from standard prices or charges; excluding interest or services charges added under credit arrangements; excluding any extra charges incurred as a result of failing to pay within the period stated at the time the purchases were made.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Value relations between currencies, purchasing power parities, are calculated by means of price comparisons between countries. Purchasing power parity is the exchange rate calculated by which the price of the commodity basket of two countries is exactly the same converted into the common currency. Purchasing power parity is usually not the same as the actual exchange rate. Purchasing power parity is used to measure the value of the national economy's money on the basis of how much goods and services can be bought with its currency. This provides a more accurate conception of the output of the national economy per capita than by only converting the value of gross domestic product or gross national income (usually) into U.S. dollars or euros.

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