Concepts




An e-invoice is an electronic invoice constructed according to a generally used message format, whose data can be handled and interpreted automatically. E-invoices are transmitted via a telecommunications service provider or a bank. E.g, Finvoice, eInvoice, TEAPPSXML, PostiXML.

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An e-mail invoice is an invoice sent as a pdf-file attached to an e-mail.

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EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) is a procedure by which information located in an enterprise's data system is used to produce a specified data flow that is transmitted electronically to a receiving enterprise, where it is directly incorporated into the data system (e.g. order, payment order for invoice, price list or product catalogue).

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EDI commerce is electronic commerce that takes place between enterprises through the medium of EDI.

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An EDI invoice is an electronic invoice in machine code according to the EDI structure standards. EDI invoices are often sent via a telecommunications service provider.

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ESA 2010 = European System of Accounts 2010, the EU's revised Regulation that steers the compilation of economic statistics.

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ESA95 manual on government deficit and debt, the updated manual on the European system of national and regional accounts.

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Early neonatal mortality refers to the number of deaths during the first week of life relative to the live births during the statistical year.

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Earned income is the sum of earned and entrepreneurial income received by households and income recipients during the year.

The earned income concept of the income distribution statistics includes income items taxed in taxation both as earned and capital income. From the statistical year 1999 onwards, the concept of earnings has been used for earned income in the income distribution statistics. The content of the concept has not changed.

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This item indicates whether a person has been in the economically active population for most of the year. The economically active population is defined as comprising all persons aged betweeen 15 and 74 who were employed or unemployed for at least six months during a year.

Since the 1985 population census, main type of activity has been determinded on the basis of the concept of labour force, in which the reference period is the last week of the year (instead of the full year). However, the concept of economic activity provides complementary information on employment.

Under this concept the population is divided into the following groups:

Economically active
- employed
- unemployed

Economically inactive
- children aged 0-14
- students
- pensioners
- conscripts, conscientious objectors
- other economically inactive

Economic activity is determined on the basis of monthly data on employment and unemployment from different sources. Part of the population has been classified as economically active on the basis of their earned income.

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A community whose purpose is acquisition of profit or other direct economic benefit to its members or whose purpose or type of activity is otherwise mainly economic. The Associations Act does not apply to the activities of these associations but their activities are based on the operating principles agreed at the time of their establishment or on separate legislation. Such associations include associations of forest owners or mortgage associations.

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The term economic territory means
a) the geographic territory administered by a government within which persons, goods, services and capital move freely
b) any free zones, including bonded warehouses and factories under customs control
c) the national air-space, territorial waters and the continental shelf lying in international waters, over which the country enjoys exclusive rights
d) territorial enclaves (i.e. geographic territories situated in the rest of the world and used, under international treaties or agreements between states, by general government agencies of the country (embassies, consulates, military bases, scientific bases etc.)
e) deposits of oil natural gas, etc. in international waters outside the continental shelf of the country, worked by units resident in the territory as defined in the preceding sub-paragraphs.

The economic territory does not include extraterrestrial enclaves (i.e. the parts of the country's own geographic territory used by general government agencies of other countries, by the Institutions of the European Union or by international organisations under international treaties or agreements between states).

The nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) provides a single, uniform breakdown of the economic territory of the European Union. NUTS is the territorial breakdown for compiling regional accounts.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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An educational institution refers to an administrative unit with a principal or other head, which has teachers and other personnel in its service (role of employers), and which is liable to keep books and compile other documentation, in which students are registered, whose activities are regulated by a legal act or decree, which follows a national curriculum, and which is financed and controlled by a public authority. An educational institution does not refer to a school building or facility. A new educational institution is established, an educational institution is abolished or merged with another educational institution at the decision of the organiser of education (maintainer of the educational institution) or a public authority.

Statistics Finland has assigned an individualised educational institution ID to each educational institution. Educational institutions are classified according to a classification of types of educational institutions.

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In the Standard Industrial Classification (TOL 2002) polytechnics are placed in the group of higher education. In the statistics on teachers groups of educational institutions have been formed where polytechnics are in a separate group. In the deduction different auxiliary variables had to be used for those polytechnics where by the education organiser's code both vocational and polytechnic education is arranged. For these deduction needs to be made only in cases where the data are in the same register.

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As a rule, educational institutions regulated by a decree concerning teaching activity or whose activity can be regarded as comparable to that of educational institutions regulated by such a decree are regarded as educational institutions within the school system.

Educational institutions within the school system are divided into the following main categories:
- General education institutions
- Vocational education institutions
- Tertiary education institutions
- Other educational institutions within the school system.

The definition is based on Statistics Finland's classification of educational institutions - Classification and listing of educational institutions 1995. Helsinki: Statistics Finland, 1996. (Education, 1996, 3)

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The data on education are based on Statistics Finland's Register of Completed Education and Degrees.

Six categories are used for the level of education in vital statistics: basic level, upper secondary level, lowest level tertiary, lower-degree level tertiary, higher-degree level tertiary and doctorate or equivalent level. Educational level is measured by the duration of education.

Those with basic level qualifications have had at most nine years of education, with leaving certificates from primary schools, middle schools and comprehensive schools.

Those having completed the upper secondary level of education have spent 11 to 12 years in education. These qualifications include matriculation examination, vocational qualifications attained in 1-3 years and further vocational qualifications.

Lowest level tertiary education lasts 2 to 3 years after upper secondary education. Examples of these qualifications include qualification of technician engineer, diploma in business and administration and diploma in nursing, which are not polytechnic degrees. Those having completed lower-degree level tertiary education have had 3 to 4 years of education after upper secondary education.

Lower-degree level tertiary education comprises polytechnic degrees and lower university degrees.

Higher-degree level tertiary education comprises education with a duration of 5 to 6 years after upper secondary education. This type of education leads to higher university degrees (master's degree) and specialist's degrees in medicine.

Completion of doctorate or equivalent level tertiary education requires independent research work or doctorate theses fit for publication. The degrees are scientific licentiate and doctorate degrees.

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Educational structure of the population describes distribution of the population aged 15 and over to attainers of primary, secondary and tertiary level qualifications and degrees. Attainers of tertiary degrees are further divided into attainers of lowest level tertiary, lower university level, higher university level and doctorate level degrees.

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The Finnish educational system is comprised of the following:

Pre-primary education is provided in Finland to children between the ages of three and six, usually at children's day care homes. Some 6-year-old children receive pre-primary education in comprehensive schools. Attendance of pre-primary education is voluntary.
Comprehensive school education is general knowledge education provided for entire age cohorts. All children permanently resident in Finland must attend compulsory education. Compulsory education starts in the year of the child's seventh birthday.
Compulsory education finishes when the syllabus of comprehensives school education has been completed (9-year comprehensive school), or 10 years from the start of compulsory education. In exceptional cases compulsory education may start already at the age of six and last 11 years due to a disability or illness. A student who has received a leaving certificate from comprehensive school in the same year or in the year before it may continue to attend optional additional education (10th grade).

Post-comprehensive school education, or upper secondary general education and vocational education represent secondary level of education. Upper secondary general school education is education leading to a matriculation examination. Its scope is three years and it gives general eligibility to further education. Vocational education can be either educational institution-based or apprenticeship training. In apprenticeship training, most of the studying is comprised of learning through practical work tasks at a workplace. The qualifications are initial vocational qualifications attained in three years, which also give general eligibility to further polytechnic or university studies.

Further and specialist vocational qualifications represent further vocational education. They, as well as initial vocational qualifications can be attained in a skills examination that can be taken irrespective of the way of acquisition of professional skills, and in which skills can be proven on the basis of preparatory education for a skills examination or work experience.

Attainment of university of applied sciences degrees takes 3.5 to 4.5 years and higher university of applied sciences degrees requiring work practice 1-1.5 years. Attainment of lower university degrees takes three years while higher university degrees take two years longer. Attainers of higher level university degrees may continue their studies to licentiate and doctorate level degrees.

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The list that shows the changes of commodities and/or aggregate level indices and the effects of the changes on the total index. The review periods are changes from the previous month, from the previous year's December and from the previous year to the review period. Available from the official Consumer Price Index monthly.

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An elderly household-dwelling unit is one in which there is at least one person over 65 years.

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The new comprehensive Election Act was approved in the Presidential Session of 2 October 1998. The Act contains both the common procedural provisions on different elections and the specific provisions on all general elections. The Act replaced the earlier separate Acts on parliamentary elections, the Presidential Election, municipal elections and the European Parliamentary elections.

The new Election Act was applied for the first time in the Parliamentary elections of 1999. The new division into constituencies based on the division into regions was applied for the first time in the Parliamentary elections held in spring 2003.

In all elections related concepts the date of ratification is considered to be the first day of being in force. After its entry into force, the new Act has been applied to all general elections.

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Statistics on the use of electricity in manufacturing are produced in two ways. Total energy consumption in manufacturing is calculated from data on net purchases (purchased/received - sold/delivered) by establishment. Total amount of electricity used by establishments is calculated from data collected with an inquiry about energy use in manufacturing.

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Simultaneously usable net electricity capacity that can be produced in Finland in extreme cold and bad water situations during one hour.

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Electricity intensity is defined as the ratio of total consumption of electricity to gross domestic product.

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Electricity supply refers to the total combined volume of produced electricity and net imports of electricity. Net imports refer to imports of electricity less exports of electricity.

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Electronic commerce or Internet commerce refers to buying or ordering goods via the Internet for a consumer's personal consumption or a household's consumption, regardless of whether the invoice for payment arrives later or the goods are paid immediately via electronic banking, credit card, electronic payment of similar. Internet commerce consists of orders made on ready electronic forms and sent over the Internet and commerce in online stores. Electronic commerce comprises both domestic and foreign electronic commerce.

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An electronic invoice is an invoice transmitted in electronic form: an EDI invoice, an e-invoice, an e-mail invoice or some other electronic invoice. Payments entered by a customer into an online banking system or direct debit are not electronic invoices.

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The general preconditions of eligibility are mostly identical with the preconditions for being entitled to vote in elections. In municipal elections the preconditions of eligibility and being entitled to vote differ in that eligibility requires permanent residence in the municipality, whereas to be entitled to vote it is sufficient that a person is domiciled in the municipality 51 days before the elections.

Eligible as candidates in municipal elections are persons
1) whose municipality of residence is the municipality in question
2) who are entitled to vote in municipal elections in some municipality, and
3) who are not under guardianship (legally incompetent).

All persons entitled to vote and not under guardianship can stand as candidates in parliamentary elections. A person holding military office cannot, however, be elected as a representative. In addition certain high officials may not serve as representatives unless they resign from office.

Eligible as candidates in European Parliamentary elections are
1) all Finnish citizens who are entitled to vote in elections and not legally incompetent
2) all citizens of a Member State of the EU who are entitled to vote and who have registered and been entered into the voting register in Finland, and who have not lost eligibility in elections in their home state.

Native-born Finnish citizens are eligible in Presidential elections.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Employed labour force resident in the area refers to all employed persons in the area concerned irrespective of the location of their workplaces. Employed labour force resident in the area forms the so-called employed night population.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Employees refer to wage and salary earners and self-employed persons. Employees are converted to annual full-time employees (FTEs) so that, for example, an employees working half-time represents one half of a person and two employees working half-time for one year represent one annual full-time employee.

With regard to self-employed persons, the labour input of a self-employed person is the input the owner of an enterprise or his/her family member has made into the enterprise without actual remuneration.

For enterprises not included in the surveys of the Register of Enterprises and Establishments, numbers of employees are estimated from data on wages and salaries.

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A natural or legal person who uses outside labour against financial compensation. An employer is entered into the register of employers maintained by the Tax Administration.

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Employers' actual social contributions (D611). Employers pay employers' ac-tual social contributions to social security funds and pension funds that maintain the social security system in order to ensure social benefits for their employees. For example, employer's unemployment insurance contributions, employer's employment pension insurance contributions, employer's social contributions.

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Employment covers all persons – both employees and self-employed – engaged in some productive activity that falls within the production boundary of the system.

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The ratio of employed persons to the population of the same age. The employment rate of the total population is calculated as the ratio of 15 to 64-year-old employed persons to the population of the same age.

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Energy balance sheet describes the conversion of primary energy to final consumption. The balance sheet contains separate entries for primary energy supply, stock changes, energy production and transmission, final energy consumption and non-energy use.

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Includes consumption of energy needed for heating residential buildings and domestic water, and electricity used for household appliances. The use of natural gas and liquid gas in cooking as well as the use of wood and electricity for heating saunas are also included. Energy consumption of the means of transport (incl. private cars) used by households is not included in energy consumption in households but in energy consumption of transport.

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Calculations of energy consumption of cooking take into consideration stoves, ovens, microwave ovens, and coffee makers and kettles. The main energy source used in cooking is electricity, to some degree town gas and liquid gas, wood and charcoal. The use of wood and charcoal is estimated to be marginal and they are excluded from these statistics.

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Energy consumption of domestic water heating comprises the energy used for heating water. The majority of residential buildings in Finland have central heating system by water circulation in which case water is heated with the same main energy source. Major dry heating systems are direct electrical heating, stove heating and air circulation central heating. In these systems, water is usually heated using a separate electrical storage boiler (hot water tank).

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Energy consumption of electrical equipment comprises the energy used by pieces of electrical equipment in dwellings and real estate properties. Electrical equipment include e.g. refrigeration equipment, washing machines, tumble dryers, televisions and computers with their accessories, cellar cooling systems, lifts and vehicle engine block and interior heating. Electrical sauna stoves and equipment related to heat distribution and ventilation are included in electricity consumption of heating.

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Energy consumption of household appliances comprises the energy used for electrical appliances, lighting and cooking.

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Energy consumption of lighting comprises the energy used for lighting residential buildings and their surrounding grounds. Some of the electricity used by housing companies in residential buildings is also used for lighting common areas. The energy source for lighting covered by this examination is electricity; the share of other energy sources is assumed to be marginal.

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Energy intensity is defined as the ratio of total energy consumption to gross domestic product.

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Incineration of waste to recover the energy it contains.

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Energy sources for residential buildings comprise fuels, electricity, district heat and ambient energy. Electricity includes grid electricity only; self-produced electricity in the form of e.g. solar or wind power is left outside this examination for the time being.

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An energy tax is an environmental tax levied on energy products, and on the production and consumption of energy. Energy taxes in Finland comprise taxes and surtaxes on motor fuels, light and heavy fuel oil, coal, peat, natural gas, and charges for safeguarding their security of supply.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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The largest enterprise groups operating in Finland are entered into the Enterprise Group Register. Data on an enterprise groups' turnover, balance sheet total and number of employees are entered annually into the Enterprise Group Register. In addition, information is recorded about the structure of the enterprise group: its group head, subsidiary companies, joint venture companies, associate companies and their Business IDs, group head's shares of ownership and votes in group companies, start and finish dates of group relationships and type of group membership. Municipal enterprise groups are also entered into the Register. Since 2003, the Enterprise Group Register has also contained sub-groups.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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An enterprise that operates at only one address and in only one industry.

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An enterprise that operates at several addresses within one or more industries or an enterprise that operates at only one address but within more than one industries.

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This term is used to denote adult education and training connected with the respondent's work or occupation which takes place entirely outside working time and involves no financial contribution from either the person's employer or his/her trade union.

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In parliamentary elections, the Presidential election and European Parliamentary elections, every Finnish citizen is entitled to vote provided the person has reached the age of 18 no later than on the day of the election. In the Presidential election, the voting age must be reached not later than on the day of the first round of the Presidential election.

In European Parliamentary elections, a citizen of another European Union Member State is also entitled to vote provided the person has reached the age of 18 no later than on the day of the election and whose municipality of residence referred to in the Municipality of Residence Act (201/1994) is in Finland provided the person has not lost the right to vote in European elections in the country of which he/she is a citizen (Election Act, Section 2).

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The concept of environment refers to the physical, social and cultural factors that are present in the natural or built environment and with which humans have an interactive relationship. The environment is perceived above all as the human living environment on the state and quality of which human activity has a positive or negative impact.

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Environmental goods and services sector involves production which is based on environmental pollution prevention or the saving of natural resources. Environmental technology is part of environmental goods and services sector. An enterprise which is included in the environmental goods and services sector may have environmental business activity as its main or secondary line of production. Environmental goods and services sector is not a specific sector of industry. Instead, production involves several different industry sectors.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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Environmental protection investments refer to the capital an enterprise spends on the environmental protection measures whose primary aim is to collect, process, reduce, prevent or eliminate the emissions, waste or other environmental hazard caused by its activities.

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The point of departure in defining an environmental tax is that it must be levied on such measurable physical quantity that has a harmful effect on the environment. The essential criterion in the defining is the basis, not the nature of the tax.

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Environmentally-related charges in Finland comprise municipal water and waste water charges and waste management charges.

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Environmentally-related taxes and fees is a common term for environmental taxes, tax-like charges and environmentally-related service charges collected by the central government.

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Equivalent income is an income concept by which incomes of households of different types are made comparable by taking account of shared consumption benefits.

Equivalent income = the household's income divided by the number of consumption units in the household.

From 2002 the income distribution statistics have used the OECD's adjusted consumption unit scale recommended by Eurostat, the Statistical Office of the European Communities, where
- the first adult of the household receives the weight 1
- other over 13-year-olds receive the weight 0.5
- children receive the weight 0.3 (0 to 13-year-olds are defined as children)

The assumption is that income is evenly distributed inside the household between all household members in relation to the above-mentioned consumption need.

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The errors and omissions in the balance of payments are the net of all biases and missing data. The errors and omissions are calculated as the difference between the sum of the current and capital accounts and the financial account in a given period. The errors and omissions are relatively larger in monthly and quarterly statistics than annually, because the timing differences disappear in the annual data to a great extent. The foreign transactions of large international companies have led to considerable volatility in statistics, and in an environment of monetary union the counterparts of their transactions are not necessarily reflected in Finland's balance of payment statistics. Timing differences in recording may also cause large errors and omissions or large consecutive errors and omissions of different signs.

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There are several definitions for this concept

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The European Parliament consists of officials and political representatives elected from all European Union member states. Since 1979 the members of the European Parliament are elected in a direct election, in proportion with their country's population. The elections are held in each member state according to national legislation on elections. Elections are held simultaneously every five years in all member states on the second weekend in June (starting on Thursday and ending on Sunday).

In the European Parliamentary elections of June 2004, altogether 732 representatives were elected from the 25 member states. Fourteen representatives were elected from Finland.

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Evening work is work made between 6 and 11 pm.

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The excess of births, that is, the natural population increase, refers to the
difference between livebirths and deaths.

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To calculate the exchange rate change, the amount of outstanding credit on the date of reporting is first translated into euros at end-of-term mid-market prices of both the present and the preceding quarter. The difference between these two amounts indicates the (positive or negative) exchange rate change. Exchange rate changes are reported only by main sectors.

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Expenditure paid to abroad by enterprises engaged in foreign sea transport. The expenditure comprises fuel costs, port charges, purchases of supplies for on-board restaurants and shops, repair costs, insurance costs, time charter charges and other traffic costs (e.g. pilotage, control and inspection charges). The expenditure comprises payments to abroad made by both Finnish vessels and by vessels time-chartered from abroad.

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A guarantee expires as the underlying credit is repaid. Repayment (in full or in part) is normally effected by the debtor. In some instances the guarantor of a loan is required to repay the loan in full or in part, based on a guarantee committed. This instalment also includes net changes in the stock of guarantees brought about by changes in the exchange rates, for example.

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The export price index measures development in the f.o.b. prices of export goods. Foreign-currency export prices are converted to euro using the mean rate for the statistical reference month. The index covers commodities of industry categories A to E.

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Value index of goods and services sold abroad.

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An enterprise whose exports threshold value is EUR 12,000 and has trading transactions in at least two months per year or the value of trading exceeds EUR 120,000 (in which case one trading transaction is sufficient in the year concerned). The data are obtained from the National Board of Customs.

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Exports of goods and services consist of transactions in goods and services (sales, barter, gifts or grants) from residents to non-residents.

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Extra duties are a disciplinary punishment for a soldier or other person subject to Chapter 45 of the Criminal Code (Criminal Code, Chapter 6, Section 1). Extra duties are ordered or sentenced at least once and at most five times (Act on military disciplinary procedure and crime prevention in defence forces 255/2014).

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Private network service linking an enterprise and customer or business partner and based on Internet technology.

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The economic territory of a country can be broken down into regional and extraregio territory.

The extraregio territory is made up of parts of the economic territory of a country which cannot be attached directly to a single region.

The extraregio territory consists of, among others, national air-space, territorial waters and the continental shelf lying in international waters over which the country enjoys exclusive rights; territorial enclaves, embassies, consulates, military and scientific bases; deposits of energy and natural resources outside the continental shelf of the country, worked by resident units.

The nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) provides a single, uniform breakdown of the economic territory of the European Union. NUTS is the territorial breakdown for compiling regional accounts.

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