Concepts and definitions

Costs of training

Costs of training refer to indirect and direct costs of training in total. Indirect costs include labour costs of employees who took part in training during the training period and direct costs are fees and payments to outside training providers, training participants' travel expenses, accommodation, food and daily allowances, trainers' labour costs, costs of premises and equipment and materials.

Course (course training)

In the CVTS, the Continuing Vocational Training Survey, course training refers to all pre-planned formal training, which is arranged separately (not taking place besides work). Training has a programme and objectives and it is provided by trainers, teachers or lecturers.

Courses can be either internally managed (designed and managed by the enterprise itself) or externally managed (designed and managed by organisations not part of the enterprise).

Course training does not include planned periods of training, instruction or practical experience, planned learning through job rotation, exchanges or secondments, attendance at learning or quality circles, self-learning through open and distance learning, neither instruction at conferences, workshops, lectures and seminars.

Direct training costs

Fees and payments to outside training providers, payments or subsistence allowances for travel, accommodation, meals and allowances, labour costs of trainers, costs of premises, equipment and materials.

Employer-sponsored training

In the Continuing Vocational Training Survey, CVTS, continuing vocational training is training measures or activities, which the enterprises finance, partly or wholly. Continuing vocational training measures and activities include continuing vocational training courses (CVT courses) and other forms of continuing vocational training.

Continuing vocational training courses may be:

a) managed internally (continuing vocational training courses that were designed and managed by the enterprise itself) or

b) managed externally (continuing vocational training courses that were designed and managed by organisations not part of the enterprise)

Other forms of continuing vocational training are:

c) planned periods of training, instruction or practical experience, using the normal tools of work, either at the immediate place of work or in the work situation

d) planned learning through job rotation, exchanges or secondments

e) attendance at learning or quality circles

f) self-learning and distance learning through using audio or video tapes, correspondence courses, computer-based methods (including use of the Internet) or other self-learning/distance learning through Learning Resources Centres

g) instruction at conferences, workshops, lectures and seminars at which the purpose of the employees attending the events is to learn/receive training.

Indirect training costs

Labour costs of employees participating in continuing vocational training courses during the time of the training.

Other continuing vocational training

Other forms of continuing vocational training are:

  • Planned periods of training, instruction or practical experience using the normal tools of work, either at the immediate place of work or in a work situation
  • Planned learning through job rotation, exchanges or secondments
  • Attendance of learning/quality circles
  • Self-learning and distance learning through audio/video tapes, correspondence courses, computer-based methods (including the Internet) or other self-learning/distance learning through a Learning Resources Centre
  • Instruction at conferences, workshops, lectures and seminars at which the purpose of the employees attending the events is to learn/receive training.

Total costs of training

Indirect and direct costs in total, from which receipts from collective funds and from other sources of revenue for training are deducted (e.g. EU support).

Training day

In the CVTS, the Continuing Vocational Training Survey, a training day includes hours of training received during paid working time. The length of one training day is one working day.

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): CVTS, Continuing vocational training [e-publication].
ISSN=1798-0003. Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 16.10.2018].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/cvts/kas_en.html