New data from these statistics will be published on the home page of the Statistics on offences and coercive measures.

1. Review on offences recorded by the police, customs and border guard

1.1. Abstract

In 2013, a total of 424,800 offences were recorded by the police, customs and border guard in the whole country, which is 640 (0.2 per cent) fewer than one year before. During the past ten years, the average number of offences recorded was 435,200 per year. Over the year, 246,000 offences were solved, while the corresponding figure was 254,300 one year previously.

The vast majority of the offences were recorded by the police. A total of 15,400 offences were recorded by the customs and border guard, which was 11.9 per cent more than one year before. Slightly over one-quarter of the offences recorded by the customs and border guard were alcohol offences or minor alcohol offences and narcotics offences.

Examined by region, the number of offences grew in the regions of Uusimaa, Satakunta, Ostrobothnia, North Ostrobothnia, Lapland and Åland. The number of offences grew most in relative terms in Ostrobothnia, by 12.7 per cent. The number of offences fell most in relative terms in the region of Central Ostrobothnia, by 11.4 per cent from the year before.

Relative to the population, the highest numbers of offences were recorded in the regions of Uusimaa, South Karelia and Kymenlaakso. In the whole country, 7,828 offences per 100,000 population were recorded.

Figure 1. Offences by region per 100,000 population in 2013

Figure 1. Offences by region per 100,000 population in 2013

1.2. Offences against property

In 2013, 240,500 offences against property were recorded, which was 1.2 per cent more than the year before. The biggest group of the offences against property recorded was formed by thefts, petty thefts and aggravated thefts. In all, 141,400 of them were reported, which was 1.9 per cent more than one year previously. In the past ten years, an average of 148,600 theft offences (thefts, petty thefts and aggravated thefts) were reported. The number of thefts recorded in 2013 was 70,400, or 3.8 per cent more than one year before. The number of aggravated thefts fell by six per cent from 2012. In 2013, 3,050 of them were reported. The number of petty thefts recorded was 68,000, which was 0.4 per cent more than in 2012. One-third (47,500 offences) of theft offences were thefts and petty thefts from shops. Compared to 2012, shoplifting increased by 0.4 per cent.

The number of burglaries (thefts, aggravated thefts or petty thefts through unlawful breaking in) has gone down considerably over the 2000s. In 2013, the number of burglaries was 32,500, which was 7.2 per cent lower than in 2012. The number of break-ins into free-time residences increased by 21.2 per cent. In 2013, 1,800 of them were reported. Breaking into residences went down most, by 17.6 per cent from the previous year. Breaking into a motor vehicle decreased by 10.6 per cent.

Figure 2. Burglaries (total 32,514 offences)

Figure 2. Burglaries (total 32,514 offences)

Eighteen per cent of offences against property were damages to property. In all, 43,400 of them were recorded, which was 2.3 per cent fewer than in 2012. Over the past ten years, an average of 50,200 damages to property have been recorded yearly.

Frauds make up around ten per cent of offences against property. The number of frauds (fraud, petty fraud, aggravated fraud) recorded was 22,800, which is nine per cent more than in 2012. In all, 7,600 means of payment frauds were recorded, which was 22.1 per cent more than in 2012. The number of both frauds and means of payment frauds has been growing over the past ten years. In 2013, 43.8 per cent of means of payment frauds were committed by the cardholder (targeting one's own account).

In 2013, 1,240 accounting and debtor offences were recorded, which is 4.2 per cent more than in the previous year. In the past ten years, an average of 1,140 of these offences have been recorded yearly. Forgery offences (forgery, petty forgery, aggravated forgery, possession of forgery materials) recorded was 3,780, which was 4.9 per cent down on 2012. Over the past ten years, an average of 4,660 forgery offences have been reported per year.

The number of robberies reported was 1,520, which was 5.7 per cent fewer than in 2012. Of robbery offences, 1,130, or 74 per cent, took place in a public place.

Figure 3. Offences against property 2013 (In total 240,547 offences)

Figure 3. Offences against property 2013 (In total 240,547 offences)

Table 1. Selected offences against property by region per 10,000 population in 2013

Region All offences against property Burglaries Unauthorised thefts of a motor vehicle Robberies Damages to property Embezzlements Frauds, means of payment frauds
Whole country 4,433 599 147 28 799 66 561
Uusimaa 5,859 626 154 44 1,015 99 627
Varsinais-Suomi 4,436 778 220 35 680 47 511
Satakunta 3,714 814 139 15 740 53 439
Kanta-Häme 3,426 515 87 16 727 51 528
Pirkanmaa 4,126 609 128 25 861 52 479
Päijät-Häme 4,418 738 206 20 749 70 531
Kymenlaakso 4,013 633 159 19 768 50 453
South Karelia 3,733 520 143 22 660 50 409
Etelä-Savo 3,225 541 125 14 650 41 400
Pohjois-Savo 3,293 495 105 17 677 60 345
North Karelia 3,193 403 70 14 713 30 414
Central Finland 3,249 484 86 21 661 57 371
South Ostrobothnia 2,431 394 59 7 479 32 409
Ostrobothnia 3,415 532 135 16 875 20 333
Central Ostrobothnia 2,135 246 44 7 547 35 206
North Ostrobothnia 4,413 581 225 27 639 78 616
Kainuu 3,095 319 63 16 693 38 636
Lapland 3,793 608 181 20 736 53 429
Åland 2,954 512 91 7 810 28 196

1.3. Offences against the person

In 2013, a total of 35,500 assault offences (assault, petty assault, aggravated assault) were recorded, which was 2,700 cases (7.1 per cent) fewer than in 2012. Aggravated assaults decreased by 4.4 per cent compared to the previous year. The number recorded was 1,800. Over the past ten years, 34,000 assaults, on average, have been reported yearly. The law reform, which entered into force at the beginning of 2011, considerably increased the number of assault offences recorded in 2011. After the legislative amendment, petty assaults on minors or close relatives became officially prosecutable. In 2011, 40,200 assaults were recorded.

The recorded number of offences against life was 95. This was six cases more than in 2012. The annual average for the past ten years was 115. The corresponding figure was 138 between 1994 and 2003. The number of attempted manslaughters, murders or killings fell by 86. The recorded number was 264.

In 2013, 61 per cent of offences against the person and 36 of assault offences were committed in private dwellings.

The number of rapes recorded was 975, while the figure was 1,009 in 2012. From 2004 to 2013, an average of 800 rapes were reported per year. The recorded number of sexual exploitations of a child was 1,657, which is 5.7 per cent more than in the year before. The reported numbers of rapes and sexual exploitations of a child vary much yearly. Individual reports may include a series of incidents comprising several criminal acts.

Table 2. Selected violent offences by region per 100,000 population in 2013

Region Manslaughter, murder, killing and their attempts Assault Aggravated assault Petty assault Rape offences
Whole country 6 442 33 178 18
Uusimaa 6 532 29 189 20
Varsinais-Suomi 3 402 26 221 19
Satakunta 8 379 50 135 14
Kanta-Häme 10 310 39 200 16
Pirkanmaa 4 394 28 174 19
Päijät-Häme 8 383 39 175 16
Kymenlaakso 5 363 25 174 19
South Karelia 3 342 24 171 11
Etelä-Savo 3 343 27 227 20
Pohjois-Savo 10 395 39 246 12
North Karelia 7 353 39 177 16
Central Finland 9 507 39 139 16
South Ostrobothnia 5 336 29 77 9
Ostrobothnia 6 370 37 111 21
Central Ostrobothnia 7 536 18 169 8
North Ostrobothnia 6 428 35 144 15
Kainuu 8 593 39 231 11
Lapland 8 514 49 190 18
Åland - 459 24 122 21

1.4. Victims of offences and domestic violence

Victims of violent offences recorded in 2013 numbered 39,200, which was 12.6 per cent lower than one year earlier. Of the victims, 22,800 (58.2 per cent) were men and 16,400 (41.8 per cent) women. The share of male victims was 11.5 per cent and that of female ones 14.1 per cent lower than in 2012. A total of 34,600 persons were victims of assault offences, 20,900 (60.2 per cent) of them men and 13,800 (39.8 per cent) women. Information on victims is obtained reliably only on certain violent offences.

The typical age of victims of assaults is 18. This age group contained 1,340 (3.9 per cent) of all victims. In all, 4,900 (14.2 per cent) of victims of assaults were aged 50 or over. Assaults of children aged under 18 decreased by 9.7 per cent from the year before. Now, there were 5,300 child victims compared with 5,900 one year ago. This is 15.3 per cent of all victims of assault offences. Of child victims of assault offences, 3,300 (62 per cent) were boys and 2,000 (38 per cent) girls. Of child victims of assault offences, 27.5 per cent of the children belonged to the age group of those aged 0 to 9, 32.9 per cent to those aged 10 to 14, and 39.6 per cent to those aged 15 to 17. Of victims of sexual abuse as a child, 87.4 per cent were girls and 12.6 per cent boys.

Figure 4. Victims of certain offences by age and sex in 2013

Figure 4. Victims of certain offences by age and sex in 2013

Good 35 per cent of assault offences were committed in private dwellings. Over one-half of assaults of women and nearly one-quarter of those of men were made in private dwellings. Good 45 per cent of assaults of men and almost one-quarter of those of women took place in a public place. Over ten per cent of assaults were made in restaurants or shopping centres.

Figure 5. Assault offences by scene and victim’s sex in 2013

Figure 5. Assault offences by scene and victim’s sex in 2013
Domestic violence

Table 3. Domestic violence by victim's sex and age 2013

Victim/Relationship between victim and person suspected Age groups total - 14 15 - 20 21 - 29 30 - 39 40 - 49 50 - 59 60 -
Total Domestic violence total 6,470 1,398 545 930 1,206 1,208 776 407
Same household 5,266 1,032 483 803 998 1,004 646 300
Near relatives 1,204 366 62 127 208 204 130 107
Men Domestic violence total 2,050 709 191 200 270 322 215 143
Same household 1,627 523 165 177 234 265 174 89
Near relatives 423 186 26 23 36 57 41 54
Women Domestic violence total 4,420 689 354 730 936 886 561 264
Same household 3,639 509 318 626 764 739 472 211
Near relatives 781 180 36 104 172 147 89 53

There were 6,470 victims in domestic violence offences recorded by the police, 13 per cent down on the previous year. Of victims of domestic violence, 68.3 per cent were women. The figures for domestic violence describe violence between present or former family members living in the same dwelling. Good one-half of these cases are violence between married or cohabiting couples, so called intimate partner violence. Only one-fifth of victims of intimate partner violence were men.

1.5. Drunken driving and traffic offences

Aggravated drunken driving decreased by 12.9 per cent and other drunken driving increased by 2.2 per cent from 2012. In all, 18,000 drunken driving offences were recorded, which was 1,100 cases or six per cent lower than in the previous year. The number of drunken driving offences known to the police was at its lowest in 30 years in 2013. They have fallen by over one-third from the record figures of 1990.

In 78.3 per cent of drunken driving cases the intoxicant was alcohol and in 18 per cent some other narcotic substance. The remaining 3.7 per cent had used both. Drunken driving caused by alcohol decreased by 11.3 per cent and that caused by narcotic substances increased by 23.4 per cent.

Figure 6. Drunken driving offences in 1980–2013

Figure 6. Drunken driving offences in 1980–2013

In 2013, 444,600 cases of endangerment of traffic safety and traffic infractions were registered, which was 2.1 per cent more than one year before. Most of them were offences found out in connection with police surveillance and guidance. The recorded number of aggravated endangerment of traffic safety was 3,800, which was 4.8 per cent more than in 2012. The police recorded 315,800 cases of exceeding speed limits, which was 9.3 per cent more than in the year before. The figures for 2013 are not fully comparable with those for 2012, because exceeding speed limits detected by automatic traffic control towards the end of 2012 were recorded in the early part of 2013.

Figure 7. Drunken driving offences by region per 100,000 population in 2013

Figure 7. Drunken driving offences by region per 100,000 population in 2013

1.6. Offences involving intoxicating substances

In all, 27,600 narcotics offences were recorded, which was 2,600 cases (12.7 per cent )more than in 2012. The number of aggravated narcotics offences went up by 20.7 per cent from the previous year. A total of 1,240 of them were recorded. The number of narcotics abuse offences grew most in absolute numbers, by 13.2 per cent. The recorded number was 12,800, which was 1,500 cases more than in 2012. The number of narcotics offences has been growing over the 2000s in nearly every year.

From 2009, the figures include the offences recorded by the customs and border guard, which increases the number of narcotics offences by about one-tenth compared with narcotics offences known to the police.

Figure 8. Narcotics offences in 2011–2013

Figure 8. Narcotics offences in 2011–2013

The recorded number of alcohol offences and minor alcohol offences was 4,500, which was 2.8 per cent lower than in 2012.

When compiling statistics on offences involving intoxicating substances, offences comprising several criminal acts are entered as one. Offences involving intoxicating substances are such that they are generally found out only as a result of the activity of the police or customs and border guard officials and the majority of the offences remain undisclosed.

1.7. Solved offences

During 2013, the police, customs and border guard solved a total of 246,000 offences. The clearance rate was 57.9 per cent, which is two percentage points lower than in the previous year. The clearance rate for offences is calculated so that the offences recorded by the police in the statistical reference year and all the offences solved in that same year are compared with each other. For this reason, the clearance rate may be over 100.

In all, 37.8 per cent of offences against property and 77.1 per cent of offences against life and health were solved.

Among municipalities of over 30,000 inhabitants the clearance rate was the highest in Kajaani and Ylöjärvi, 77.5 and 69.8 per cent, respectively. The lowest clearance rates were found in Helsinki and Salo, 50.8 and 50.7 per cent.

The clearance rate varies by type of offence quite strongly. Due to the manner of disclosure, drunken driving and traffic offences, and offences involving intoxicating substances almost all become solved. Sixty-nine per cent of frauds and 89.5 per cent of offences against life were solved. The clearance rate was 85.9 per cent for assault offences.

The clearance rates are the lowest for theft offences (theft, aggravated theft, petty theft), damages to property, means of payment frauds and unauthorised thefts of a motor vehicle. In 2013, one-sixth of thefts were solved. Nearly one-quarter of damages to property and one-sixth of means of payment frauds were cleared. One-third of unauthorised thefts of a motor vehicle were solved. Good one-half of robberies were solved.

Table 4. Clearance rate of certain types of offences in 1986-2013

Offence 1986 - 1990 1991 - 1995 1996 - 2000 2001 - 2005 2006 - 2010 2011 2012 2013
All offences 1) 65 51 51 56 61 59 60 58
Theft 25 17 14 15 18 17 16 15
Aggravated theft 39 29 40 41 38 34 38 38
Petty theft 78 70 67 58 57 57 56 56
Robbery 53 43 42 45 49 49 54 53
Damages to property 29 27 27 26 25 21 23 22
Attempted manslaughter, murder or killing 95 91 92 94 97 91 97 92
Assault 79 74 76 80 81 75 78 77
Aggravated assault 85 84 83 87 88 85 83 87
Petty assault 95 86 79 75 73 73 75 75
Rape 63 56 57 63 66 59 72 78
Sexual exploitation of a child 91 84 88 82 86 62 91 63
1) Excl. endangerment of traffic safety, hit-and-run, traffic infraction, violation of social welfare legislation on road traffic and motor vehicle infraction

1.8. Persons suspected of offences

In all, 276,400 persons were suspected of the 246,000 offences solved in 2013. The same person can be a suspect of several different offences. In all, 18.4 per cent of such suspects were women. When calculating according to the most aggravated offence of a person (a person can be a suspect only one time during the year), 103,000 different persons were suspects. Thus, one person was a suspect of 2.7 offences, on average.

In addition to the quantitative difference, the criminality of men and women differs in that women's shares of assaults, drunken driving and damages to property were small compared to men. However, the share of women suspected of assaults and drunken driving has grown in 20 years. Typical crimes for women were petty thefts, frauds, embezzlements and forgeries. Women are also slightly younger than men. The most common age for a woman suspect is 19 and that for a man suspect is 20 years. The average age of suspects of both sexes is 32 years.

Table 5. Suspects of solved offences by age and sex in 2004-2013

Year/suspects Males total Females total Males aged under 15 Females aged under 15 Males aged 15-17 Females aged 15-17 Males aged 18-20 Females aged 18-20 Males aged over 20 Females aged over 20
2004 250,087 47,028 8,342 3,182 20,063 4,763 33,466 5,670 188,216 33,413
2005 250,489 46,580 7,289 3,047 22,486 4,546 31,983 5,521 188,731 33,466
2006 239,264 45,093 6,934 2,725 19,296 4,093 28,830 5,783 184,204 32,492
2007 250,303 57,847 8,347 2,749 19,783 4,077 29,702 5,433 192,471 45,588
2008 257,955 50,240 10,577 3,198 20,592 4,207 30,388 5,987 196,398 36,848
2009 247,229 51,298 8,846 3,173 19,049 4,635 27,261 5,923 192,073 37,567
2010 249,123 52,930 8,023 3,414 18,542 5,053 27,431 5,722 195,127 38,741
2011 248,787 53,975 9,091 3,640 19,359 5,230 28,224 5,943 192,113 39,162
2012 233,156 49,896 6,930 2,738 16,532 4,338 26,485 5,439 183,209 37,381
2013 225,509 50,852 6,631 2,433 15,011 4,000 25,574 5,391 178,293 39,028

In 2013 the share of young and underage people - aged 21 or under - among all suspects was 21.4 per cent. The shares of young people were large for alcohol offences, robberies, damages to property and thefts of a motor vehicle. Of suspects of robberies, 37.8 per cent were young people and 44.4 per cent of suspects of damages to property. In all, 20.7 per cent of those suspected of assaults were young people.

1.9. Backgrounds of suspects

The average income subject to state taxation (income tax is paid to the state on both earned income and capital income) of suspects aged 15 or over belonging to the registered population (living permanently and temporarily in Finland) was around EUR 16,900, while the corresponding income in total population was about EUR 27,000. The respective median income was approximately EUR 9,600 and EUR 22,600. Of the suspects, 31.7 per cent had an income of under EUR 5,000 while the corresponding share for the entire population was 10.5 per cent. Among the suspects, 32.5 per cent had an income of at least EUR 20,000, while the share for the entire population was 55.3 per cent. All those whose income subject to state taxation is not known also belong to the group of under EUR 2,499. The figures given in Section 1.9 are calculated so that one person is a suspect only one time. The figures calculated here differ from the figures presented elsewhere in this publication where the same person can be a suspect several times during a year. Those guilty of endangerment of traffic safety or traffic infraction have not be taken into account in the figures. The data on income subject to state tax of suspects are based on the National Board of Taxes' data in the tax database concerning income subject to state taxation from 2012.

Table 6. Persons suspected of offences by sex and income subject to state taxation in 2013, aged 15 and over

Sex Total – €2,499 €2,500 – 4,999 €5,000 – €9,999 €10,000 – €19,999 €20,000 – €39,999 €40,000 – €79,999 Over €80,000
Sex total Persons suspected 99,649 26,096 5,458 17,904 17,805 22,106 8,611 1,669
% 100.1 26.2 5.5 18.0 17.9 22.2 8.6 1.7
Men Persons suspected 78,605 20,581 4,255 13,572 13,420 17,722 7,562 1,493
% 100.0 26.2 5.4 17.3 17.1 22.5 9.6 1.9
Women Persons suspected 21,044 5,515 1,203 4,332 4,385 4,384 1,049 176
% 99.9 26.2 5.7 20.6 20.8 20.8 5.0 0.8

Figure 9. Persons suspected of offences and the entire population by income subject to state taxation in 2013, aged 15 years and over

Figure 9. Persons suspected of offences and the entire population by income subject to state taxation in 2013, aged 15 years and over

Classified by main type of activity, 38,6 per cent of suspects (belonging to the registered population aged 15 or over) were employed persons. Of all suspects, 16.7 per cent were unemployed and 14.4 per cent in the inactive population. Of the whole population, 52.2 per cent were employed, 5.2 per cent unemployed and 4.2 per cent in the inactive population. The information on main type of activity is from 2011.

Figure 10. Persons suspected of offences and the entire population by main activity in 2013, aged 15 and over

Figure 10. Persons suspected of offences and the entire population by main activity in 2013, aged 15 and over

Of suspects aged 15 or over, 52.2 per cent had completed only basic level education and 37.5 per cent had completed secondary level education. The respective figures for the whole population were 31.3 and 40 per cent.

In Appendix tables 4 to 7, the same person can be a suspect several times. This is a common way to present the number of suspects of offences in the statistics. This produces a better view of criminality as a phenomenon and the backgrounds of the persons guilty of a particular offence can be described better.

1.10. Foreign citizens

The number of persons suspected of the offences solved in 2013 by the police, customs and border guard was 276,400, of whom 35,000 were citizens of foreign countries. Compared to 2012, the number of all suspects decreased by 2.4 per cent, while the number of foreign citizens suspected went down by 1.4 per cent. The number of foreign suspects has been, on average, 27,100 per year over the past ten years. The share of foreign nationals in all suspects was 12.6 per cent. The share has been growing slightly in recent years. In 2013, Russians and Estonians made up the biggest group of foreigners, both numbering 9,000. Of Estonian suspects, 40.6 per cent and 24.3 per cent of Russians had a permanent place of residence in Finland.

Other countries where over 1,000 of its citizens were suspected were Romania (2,100), Sweden (1,400), Iraq (1,400), Lithuania (1,300) and Somalia (1,300). Only 2.9 per cent of Lithuanians and 6.2 per cent of Romanians were living permanently in Finland. The respective percentages for Somalis and Iraqis were 93.7 and 77.8. Of Swedes, 63.6 per cent had a permanent place of residence in Finland. One person can be guilty of many different offences during a year.

Figure 11. Foreign citizens suspected of offences by place of residence in 2009–2013

Figure 11. Foreign citizens suspected of offences by place of residence in 2009–2013

Among the offences solved in 2013, 43.4 per cent of the suspected foreign citizens were living permanently in Finland. The respective proportion has remained almost unchanged over the past few years. Foreign suspects living in Finland were slightly younger than Finnish suspects were. Their average age was 31 years, while that of Finnish suspects was 32 years. Typical offences by foreigners living in Finland were theft, assault and narcotics offences, as well as driving a motor vehicle without a licence.

In the statistics, the same person can be a suspect several times. Data on the nationality of suspects and on whether they are permanently resident in Finland or not are based on the nationality data derived from the police and those selected by means of the personal identity code from the population data. The group "no permanent place of residence in Finland" is in that sense problematic, because it may include persons staying longer periods in Finland without applying for a permanent place of residence here. The group may also include persons suspected of a narcotics offence, for example, who have come to Finland only for the purpose of committing a crime.

Table 7. Suspects of solved offences living in Finland by age and nationality in 2013

Age group Suspects living permanently in Finland Share per 1,000 population in the age group
Finnish residents Foreign citizens Finnish residents Foreign citizens
-14 8,214 511 10 18
15-17 17,853 862 98 176
18-20 28,763 1,168 147 195
21-24 32,571 2,189 126 169
25-29 35,676 2,913 113 109
30-34 29,340 2,521 93 90
35-39 23,247 1,711 76 76
40-49 33,384 2,258 50 70
50-59 19,926 762 27 40
60-69 8,229 156 12 19
70- 2,113 62 3 10
Total 239,316 15,113 46 77

If the number of suspects is calculated so that the same person can be a suspect of several crimes, the number of suspects with Finnish background was 234,800 (85 per cent of suspects). Of them, 227,600 were born in Finland and 7,200 abroad. Suspects with foreign background number 20,000 (7.2 per cent of suspects). Of persons with foreign background, 1,700 were born in Finland and 18,300 abroad. Among suspects, 4,400 (1.6 per cent) were of unknown origin and 17,200 (6.2 per cent) did not have population information. Population information is missing from tourists and those staying temporarily in the country, for example.


Source: Offences known to the police 2013. Statistics Finland

Inquiries: Kimmo Haapakangas 09 1734 3252, rikos@stat.fi

Director in charge: Riitta Harala


Updated 2.4.2014

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Offences known to the police [e-publication].
ISSN=2242-7953. 2013, 1. Review on offences recorded by the police, customs and border guard . Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 21.5.2019].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/polrik/2013/polrik_2013_2014-04-02_kat_001_en.html