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Concepts and definitions

Ammonia (NH3)

Ammonia is primarily generated from using fertilisers in agriculture. Ammonia causes eutrophication and acidification.

Biomass-based carbon dioxide (CO2-bio)

Biomass CO2 emissions are caused by biomass burning, such as wood, biogas, sewage sludge and renewable fraction of waste. One half of the total amount of biomass CO2 derives from the wood industry and its black liquor burning process and the other half is caused by wood burning to energy.

Biomass-based carbon dioxide (CO2-bio)

Biomass-based carbon dioxide emissions are generated from biomass burning. Biodegradation, for example at landfills and in wastewater treatment, also causes biomass-based CO2 emissions but they are not evaluated separately. Biomass includes wood, biogas, sludge from wastewater treatment and biodegradable waste. In Finland, most of the biomass-based CO2 emissions from burning are generated by burning of black liquor in the forest industry. Burning of other wood-based biomass is also a major source. Biomass-based CO2 emissions from burning are not included in energy sector emissions in the greenhouse gas inventory because they are included in carbon stock changes in the land use sector.

Carbon dioxide equivalent

A joint measure of greenhouse gas emissions by which to sum up the effect of various greenhouse gas emissions on the acceleration of the greenhouse effect.

Carbon monoxide (CO)

Carbon monoxide has an indirect radiative forcing effect by elevating con-centrations of methane and tropospheric ozone. Carbon monoxide is pro-duced from the partial oxidation of carbon-containing compounds. It is widely used in the chemical industry.

F gases

F gases, or fluorinated greenhouse gases, are a common term for HFC compounds (hydrofluorocarbons), PFC compounds (perfluorocarbons), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and nitric trifluoride (NF3). They are strong greenhouse gases (GWP 12-22800), the emissions of which are to be reduced by international climate conventions (e.g. the UNFCCC, the Paris Agreement). F gas emissions are reported in the greenhouse gas inventory. The most significant sources of emissions for these gases are refrigeration and air conditioning equipment.

Fossil carbon dioxide (CO2-fos)

Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas. CO2 emissions are mostly caused by burning fossil fuels. In emissions into air by industry statistics, peat is included into fossil fuels. A majority of the fossil carbon dioxide emissions are released in heat and power production.

Fossil carbon dioxide (CO2-fos)

Carbon dioxide is the most prevalent greenhouse gas, the emissions of which are primarily connected to the use of fossil fuels. Peat is regarded as a fossil fuel in the statistics on emissions into air by industry. Most fossil carbon dioxide emissions are released in connection with the production of electricity and heat.

Greenhouse gas

Greenhouse gases reported in the greenhouse gas inventory are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated greenhouse gases or F-gases (HFC compounds (hydrofluorocarbons), PFC compounds (perfluorocarbons), sulphur hexafluoride SF6, and nitrogen trifluoride NF3). Other significant greenhouse gases include water vapour, ozone and the so-called CFC and HCFC compounds reported under the Montreal Protocol. Greenhouse gases cause global warming by preventing the heat radiation from the sun from returning into space.

Greenhouse gas inventory

The greenhouse gas inventory is an annual calculation of the greenhouse gas emissions and removals generated in each country's territory in accordance with the IPCC methodological guidelines and the requirements of international climate conventions, and the results of which are gathered into common Reporting Format Tables and the National Inventory Report. The inventory is submitted annually to the European Commission. In addition, it is delivered in alternate years either as an independent entity or in connection with the biennial report of the Paris Agreement, compiled every two years, to the UNFCCC Secretariat.

Indirect greenhouse gases

Carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and other volatile organic compounds than methane (NMVOC) contribute to the greenhouse gas effect by forming ozone (O3) and/or carbon dioxide (CO2) or nitrous oxide (N2O) in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases formed from such compounds in the atmosphere are referred to as indirect greenhouse gases in the greenhouse gas inventory. CO, NOx and NMVOC emissions are restricted under other international agreements, such as the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollutants, and they are not subject to the reduction targets of the Paris Agreement, for example. However, their emissions are also reported in the greenhouse gas inventory and emissions of indirect greenhouse gases are taken into consideration in total emissions.

Industry

The industrial classification divides units into industry classes based on their main economic activity. The main economic activity is the one that produces a majority of the unit's value added. The classification used is the Finnish national classification (TOL) derived from the statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE).

Methane (CH4)

Methane is produced in connection with the digestion and decomposition of organic substances, e.g. manure, wastewater sludge or biodegradable waste. In addition, it is generated in livestock enteric fermentation, which is the largest source of methane emissions in the greenhouse gas inventory. In addition to the above, methane is generated in incomplete combustion and evaporates in the processing, transfer and distribution of natural gas and biogas.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

Nitrogen dioxide is an indirect greenhouse gas that forms ground level ozone. It also causes acid rain and eutrophication of soil and water. Nitrogen dioxide is produced during combustion, especially when burning takes place at high temperatures. It is also released during certain industrial processes.

Nitrous oxide (N2O)

Nitrous oxide (laughing gas) is a substance causing ozone depletion and it is a significant greenhouse gas. Its contribution to the greenhouse gas effect per unit of mass is approximately 300-fold that of carbon dioxide. Agriculture is the biggest source of nitrous oxide emissions.

Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10)

Particulate matter sized under 2.5 and 10 micrometer per diameter. These tiny particles are released in burning processes, traffic and some industrial processes. Particulate matter have adverse health effects.

Resident principle, national territory principle and bridging items

The statistics on emissions into air by industry, which are accordant with the regulation on environmental accounting, also contain Finnish citizens' emissions from land, water and air transport and from Finnish fishing vessels operating abroad. The emissions by foreign citizens from land, water and air transport on Finnish territory are subtracted from the emissions into air by industry.

This resident principle approach is different from that used in the greenhouse gas inventory, which only contains the emissions generated in the territory of Finland regardless of the nationality of the individual causing the emission (national territory principle). The difference between the greenhouse gas inventory and the statistics on emissions into air by industry is recorded in the bridging table for each emission component.

The bridging table contains data on Finnish citizens' emissions from land, water and air transport and from Finnish fishing vessels operating abroad, and on emissions by foreign citizens from land, water and air transport in Finland.

Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

Sulphur dioxide is produced from the burning of fossil fuels and the smelting of mineral ores that contain sulphur. When sulphur dioxide combines with water, it forms sulphuric acid and acid rain. Acid rain can cause deforestation, acidify waterways and corrode building materials.

Volatile organic compounds excl. methane (NMVOC)

NMVOC is a generic name for organic compounds that easily vaporise in the atmosphere. Volatile organic compounds are released, for instance, in burning processes and when using solvents. Ozone is formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and NMVOCs react in the presence of sunlight.

Volatile organic compounds excl. methane (NMVOC)

NMVOC is a generic name for volatile organic compounds that easily vaporise in the atmosphere, excluding methane. Volatile organic compounds are released, for instance, in burning processes and when using solvents. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and NMVOCs react in the presence of sunlight to produce ozone.

Referencing instructions:

Official Statistics of Finland (OSF): Emissions into air by industry [e-publication].
ISSN=2323-7600. Helsinki: Statistics Finland [referred: 7.7.2022].
Access method: http://www.stat.fi/til/tilma/kas_en.html